Improved Sleep, Diet, and Exercise in Adults with Serious Mental Illness: Results from a Pilot Self-Management Intervention
Compared to the general population, adults with serious mental illnesses have elevated rates of medical morbidity resulting in a reduced life expectancy of approximately 15 years. Chronic disease self-management programs for adults with serious mental and chronic medical illnesses show some promise in improving physical health-related outcomes, yet none of them address sleep quality. Poor sleep affects a majority of adults with serious mental illness and is robust risk factor for physical morbidity and premature mortality. This pilot project examined the impact of a 14-week educational and support group that included sleep quality as a cornerstone in promoting wellness and self-management in 78 adults with serious mental illness and poor health. Results provide preliminary data that the self-management program was associated with significant improvements in self-reported sleep quality at post-intervention. At 3-month follow-up, participants reported additional increases in sleep quality as well as in healthy diet and exercise frequency. Addressing sleep quality as part of self-management and wellness programs may be a viable approach to assist adults with chronic mental and physical illnesses to adopt health-promoting changes.
KeywordsSleep Self-management Physical health Diet Exercise Serious mental illness
We are grateful to the individuals who participated in this project and to our indispensable team of research assistants. Dr. Schmutte wishes to thank Ross Levin, Ph.D. for fostering his interest in research and teaching him the clinical importance of sleep quality.
Compliance with ethical standards
The study was supported by the Donaghue Foundation.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 32.Cohen, Z.L. and K.M. Sharkey Insomnia in Psychiatric Disorders, in Clinical handbook of insomnia, H. Attarian, Editor. 2016, Springer. p. 267–281.Google Scholar
- 33.Faulkner, S. and P. Bee, Perspectives on Sleep, Sleep Problems, and Their Treatment, in People with Serious Mental Illnesses: A Systematic Review. PloS one, 2016. 11(9): p. e0163486.Google Scholar
- 40.First, M.B., et al., Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV-TR axis I disorders, research version, patient edition. 2002, SCID-I/P.Google Scholar
- 41.Statistics, N.C.f.H., National Health Interview Survey: research for the 1995–2004 redesign. Vol. 126. 1999: National Ctr for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
- 42.National Center for Health Statistics, Third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988–1994. NHANES III laboratory data file. Hyattsville, MD: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1996.Google Scholar
- 43.Cohen, J.W., et al., Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Rockville, MD.: National Health Information Resource, 1998.Google Scholar
- 46.Derogatis, L.R., Brief Symptom Inventory: BSI; Administration, scoring, and procedures manual. 1993: Pearson.Google Scholar
- 59.Corporation, I., IBM SPSS Statistics 24. 2016, IBM Corporation: Armonk.Google Scholar