Advertisement

Psychiatric Quarterly

, Volume 89, Issue 1, pp 53–60 | Cite as

Elevated Plasma S100B, Psychotic Symptoms, and Cognition in Schizophrenia

  • Huiqiong Deng
  • Ramandeep S. Kahlon
  • Satyajit Mohite
  • Pooja A. Amin
  • Giovana Zunta-Soares
  • Gabriela D. Colpo
  • Laura Stertz
  • Gabriel R. Fries
  • Consuelo Walss-Bass
  • Jair C. Soares
  • Olaoluwa O. Okusaga
Original Paper

Abstract

S100B is a calcium binding protein mainly produced by glial cells. Previous studies have shown elevated levels of S100B in patients with schizophrenia. We measured S100B levels in fasting plasma of 39 patients with schizophrenia and 19 adult healthy controls. We used linear regression to compare S100B between patients and controls. In patients only, we also investigated the relationship between S100B levels and psychotic symptoms (assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), and cognitive function (assessed by the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery), respectively by calculating Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Mean plasma S100B was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group. There were no significant correlations between plasma S100B and psychotic symptoms or cognition.

Keywords

S100B Schizophrenia Psychotic symptoms NIH toolbox cognition battery Cognition 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We wish to thank all persons who kindly participated in the study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

No source of funding was available for this study.

Conflict of Interest

Dr. Jair C. Soares has received grant/research support from BMS, Forest, Merck, Elan, and J&J, support as consultant at Astellas, and support to Speakers Bureau at Pfizer and Abbott. All other authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. 1.
    Moore BW. A soluble protein characteristic of the nervous system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1965; 19:739–744.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schäfer BW, Heizmann CW. The S100 family of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins: functions and pathology. Trends Biochem Sci 1996; 21:134–140.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rothermundt M, Ponath G, Glaser T, Hetzel G, Arolt V. S100B serum levels and long-term improvement of negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacol Off Publ Am Coll Neuropsychopharmacol 2004; 29:1004–1011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Donato R. Intracellular and extracellular roles of S100 proteins. Microsc Res Tech 2003; 60:540–551.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rothermundt M, Falkai P, Ponath G, Abel S, Burkle H, Diedrich M, Hetzel G, Peters M, Siegmund A, Pedersen A, Maier W, Schramm J, Suslow T, Ohrmann P, Arolt V. Glial cell dysfunction in schizophrenia indicated by increased S100B in the CSF. Mol Psychiatry 2004; 9:897–899.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alexanian AR, Bamburg JR. Neuronal survival activity of s100betabeta is enhanced by calcineurin inhibitors and requires activation of NF-kappaB. FASEB J 1999; 13:1611–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mariggió MA, Fulle S, Calissano P, Nicoletti I, Fanó G. The brain protein S-100ab induces apoptosis in PC12 cells. Neuroscience 1994; 60:29–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhivotovsky B, Orrenius S, Brustugun OT, Døskeland SO. Injected cytochrome c induces apoptosis. Nature 1998; 391:449–450.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lara DR, Gama CS, Belmonte-de-Abreu P, Portela LVC, Goncalves CA, Fonseca M, Hauck S, Souza DO. Increased serum S100B protein in schizophrenia: a study in medication-free patients. J Psychiatr Res 2001; 35:11–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schmitt A, Bertsch T, Henning U, Tost H, Klimke A, Henn FA, Falkai P. Increased serum S100B in elderly, chronic schizophrenic patients: Negative correlation with deficit symptoms. Schizophr Res 2005; 80:305–313.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schroeter ML, Abdul-Khaliq H, Frühauf S, Höhne R, Schick G, Diefenbacher A, Blasig IE. Serum S100B is increased during early treatment with antipsychotics and in deficit schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2003; 62:231–236.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yelmo-Cruz S, Morera-Fumero AL, Abreu-González P. S100B and schizophrenia. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2013; 67:67–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhang XY, Xiu MH, Song C, Chen DC, Wu GY, Haile CN, Kosten TA, Kosten TR. Increased serum S100B in never-medicated and medicated schizophrenic patients. J Psychiatr Res 2010; 44:1236–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhang XY, Xiu MH, Chen DC, Zhu FY, Wu GY, Haile CN, Lu L, Kosten TA, Kosten TR. Increased S100B serum levels in schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia: association with dyskinetic movements. J Psychiatr Res 2010; 44:429–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Steiner J, Bielau H, Bernstein H-G, Bogerts B, Wunderlich MT. Increased cerebrospinal fluid and serum levels of S100B in first-onset schizophrenia are not related to a degenerative release of glial fibrillar acidic protein, myelin basic protein and neurone-specific enolase from glia or neurones. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2006; 77:1284–1287.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rothermundt M, Missler U, Arolt V, Peters M, Leadbeater J, Wiesmann M, Rudolf S, Wandinger KP, Kirchner H. Increased S100B blood levels in unmedicated and treated schizophrenic patients are correlated with negative symptomatology. Mol Psychiatry 2001; 6:445–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ling S, Tang Y, Jiang F, Wiste A, Guo S, Weng Y, Yang T-S. Plasma S-100B protein in Chinese patients with schizophrenia: comparison with healthy controls and effect of antipsychotics treatment. J Psychiatr Res 2007; 41:36–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hendouei N, Hamzeh S, Panahi A, Khazaeipour Z. Negative Correlation between Serum S100B and Leptin Levels in Schizophrenic Patients During Treatment with Clozapine and Risperidone : Preliminary Evidence. Iran J Pharm Res 2016; 15:323–330.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Qi LY, Xiu MH, Chen DC, Wang F, Kosten TA, Kosten TR, Zhang XY. Increased serum S100B levels in chronic schizophrenic patients on long-term clozapine or typical antipsychotics. Neurosci Lett 2009; 462:113–117.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Roder JK, Roder JC, Gerlai R. Conspecific exploration in the T-maze: Abnormalities in S100β transgenic mice. Physiol Behav 1996; 60:31–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Wingate M, Borella A, Gerlai R, Roder J, Azmitia EC. Transgenic mice overexpressing the neurotrophic factor S-100β show neuronal cytoskeletal and behavioral signs of altered aging processes: implications for Alzheimer’s disease and Down’s syndrome. Brain Res 1997; 776:51–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Winocur G, Roder J, Lobaugh N. Learning and Memory in S100-β Transgenic Mice: An Analysis of Impaired and Preserved Function. Neurobiol Learn Mem 2001; 75:230–243.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pedersen A, Diedrich M, Kaestner F, Koelkebeck K, Ohrmann P, Ponath G, Kipp F, Abel S, Siegmund A, Suslow T, von Eiff C, Arolt V, Rothermundt M. Memory impairment correlates with increased S100B serum concentrations in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacology Biol Psychiatry 2008; 32:1789–1792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chen S, Tian L, Chen N, Xiu M, Wang Z, Yang G, Wang C, Yang F, Tan Y. Cognitive dysfunction correlates with elevated serum S100B concentration in drug-free acutely relapsed patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 2017; 247:6–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sheehan D V, Janavs J, Baker R, Harnett-Sheehan K, Knapp E, Sheehan M, Lecrubier Y, Weiller E, Hergueta T, Amorim P, others. MINI-Mini International neuropsychiatric interview-english version 5.0. 0-DSM-IV. J Clin Psychiatry 1998; 59:34–57.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kay SR, Flszbein A, Opfer LA. The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 1987; 13:261.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gershon RC, Wagster M V, Hendrie HC, Fox NA, Cook KF, Nowinski CJ. NIH toolbox for assessment of neurological and behavioral function. Neurology 2013; 80:S2--S6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zelazo PD, Bauer PJ. National institutes of health toolbox cognition battery (NIH Toolbox CB): Validation for children between 3 and 15 years. Wiley; 2013.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Steiner J, Bernstein H-G, Bielau H, Farkas N, Winter J, Dobrowolny H, Brisch R, Gos T, Mawrin C, Myint AM. S100B-immunopositive glia is elevated in paranoid as compared to residual schizophrenia: a morphometric study. J Psychiatr Res 2008; 42:868–876.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Morera-Fumero AL, Díaz-Mesa E, Abreu-Gonzalez P, Fernandez-Lopez L, Cejas-Mendez M del R. Day/night changes in serum S100B protein concentrations in acute paranoid schizophrenia. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacology Biol Psychiatry 2017; 75:207–212.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Steiner J, Bernstein H-G, Bielau H, Berndt A, Brisch R, Mawrin C, Keilhoff G, Bogerts B. Evidence for a wide extra-astrocytic distribution of S100B in human brain. BMC Neurosci 2007; 8:2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Huiqiong Deng
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ramandeep S. Kahlon
    • 3
  • Satyajit Mohite
    • 1
    • 2
  • Pooja A. Amin
    • 1
  • Giovana Zunta-Soares
    • 2
  • Gabriela D. Colpo
    • 2
  • Laura Stertz
    • 2
  • Gabriel R. Fries
    • 2
  • Consuelo Walss-Bass
    • 2
  • Jair C. Soares
    • 1
    • 2
  • Olaoluwa O. Okusaga
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Harris County Psychiatric CenterUniversity of Texas Health Science Center at HoustonHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesMcGovern Medical School at the University of Texas Health Science Center at HoustonHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Menninger Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations