Advertisement

Psychiatric Quarterly

, Volume 89, Issue 1, pp 1–10 | Cite as

Specific Contributions of Age of Onset, Callous-Unemotional Traits and Impulsivity to Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Youths with Conduct Disorders

  • Sébastien Urben
  • Stéphanie Habersaat
  • Sandrine Pihet
  • Maya Suter
  • Jill de Ridder
  • Philippe Stéphan
Original Paper
  • 356 Downloads

Abstract

Youths with conduct disorders (CD) are particularly studied for their violent and aggressive behaviors. Many researchers considered aggressive behaviors as being either reactive or proactive. Moreover, factors such as age of CD onset, impulsivity, and callous-unemotional traits, separately, have been related to these different types of aggressive behaviors. However, very few studies addressed the combined contribution of these three factors on proactive and reactive aggression. This question was tested in a sample composed of 43 male adolescents with CD. A single regression analysis including all predictors and outcomes, using Bayesian statistics, was computed. Results indicated that impulsivity was related to reactive aggression, while CU traits were related to proactive aggression. These results suggest first, an important heterogeneity among youth with CD, probably leading to different trajectories and, second, that youths with callous-unemotional traits should receive special attention and care as they are more at risk for proactive aggression.

Keywords

Conduct disorders Impulsivity Age of onset Callous-unemotional traits Aggression 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The present study was funded by a grant from the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant no. 100014-130553). The authors would like to thank the adolescents and the staff of the participating institutions for their kind cooperation, as well as Sandie Ackermann, Cybèle Bertoni, Tamara Borovicanin, Marcello Cantarella, Margaux Clément, Nathalie Grégoire, Tatiana Mabillard, Laura Moizeau, Sheila Ramos and Yoann Uehlinger for their help in data collection.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

none.

References

  1. 1.
    American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Frick, P. J. (2012). Developmental pathways to conduct disorder: Implications for future directions in research, assessment, and treatment. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol, 41(3), 378–389. doi:  10.1080/15374416.2012.664815 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Frick, P. J., Stickle, T. R., Dandreaux, D. M., Farrell, J. M., & Kimonis, E. R. (2005). Callous-unemotional traits in predicting the severity and stability of conduct problems and delinquency. J Abnorm Child Psychol, 33(4), 471–487.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kimonis, E. R., & Frick, P. J. (2010). Etiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: Biological, familial and environnemental factors identified in the developement of disruptive behavior disorders. In R. C. Murrihy, A. D. Kidman & T. H. Ollendick (Eds.), Handbook of clinical assessment and treatmeent of conduct problems in youth (pp. 49–76). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hyde, L. W., Burt, S. A., Shaw, D. S., Donnellan, M. B., & Forbes, E. E. (2015). Early starting, agressive, and/or callous-unemotional ? Examining the overlap and predictive utility of antisocial behavior subtypes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dodge, K. A., & Coie, J. D. (1987). Social-information processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children’s peer groups.. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53, 1146–1158.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dodge, K. A. (1991). The structure and function of reactive aggression. In D. J. Pepler & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The Developemnt and treatment of childhood aggression. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Raine, A., Dodge, K., Loeber, R., Gatzke-Kopp, L., Lynam, D. R., Reynolds, C., . . . Liu, J. (2006). The reactive-proactive aggression questionnaire: Differential correlates of reactive and proactive aggression in adolescent boys. Aggress Behav, 32(2), 159–171. doi:  10.1002/ab.20115
  9. 9.
    Beaver, J. D., Lawrence, A. D., Passamonti, L., & Calder, A. J. (2008). Appetitive motivation predicts the neural response to facial signals of aggression. J Neurosci, 28(11), 2719–2725. doi:  10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0033-08.2008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Critchfield, K. L., Levy, K. N., & Clarkin, J. F. (2004). The relationship between impulsivity, aggression, and impulsive-aggression in borderline personality disorder: An empirical analysis of self-report measures. J Pers Disord, 18(6), 555–570. doi:  10.1521/pedi.18.6.555.54795 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Marmorstein, N. R. (2013). Associations between dispositions to rash action and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol, 42(1), 131–138. doi:  10.1080/15374416.2012.734021 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stanford, M. S., Mathias, C. W., Dougherty, D. M., Lake, S. L., Anderson, N. E., & Patton, J. H. (2009). Fifty years of the Barratt Impulsiveness scale: An update and review Pers Indiv Diff, 47, 385–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dandreaux, D. M., & Frick, P. J. (2009). Developmental pathways to conduct problems: A further test fo the childhood and adolescent-onset distinction. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 375–385.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychol Rev, 100(4), 674–701.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pardini, D. A., & Frick, P. J. (2013). Multiple developmental pathways to conduct disorder: Current conceptualizations and clinical implications. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 22(1), 20–25.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Odgers, C. L., Moffitt, T. E., Broadbent, J. M., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., . . . Caspi, A. (2008). Female and male antisocial trajectories: From childhood origins to adult outcomes. Dev Psychopathol, 20(2), 673–716. doi:  10.1017/S0954579408000333
  17. 17.
    Patterson, G. R., & Yoerger, K. (1993). Developmental model for late-onset delinquency. In D. W. Osgood (Ed.), Motivation and delinquency (pp. 140–172). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Frick, P. J., & Loney, B. R. (1999). Outcomes of children and adolescents with oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. In H. C. Quay & A. E. Hogan (Eds.), Handbook of disruptive behavior diorders (pp. 507–524). Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Harrington, H., & Milne, B. J. (2002). Males on the life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: Follow-up at age 26 years. Dev Psychopathol, 14(1), 179–207.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Woodward, L. J., Fergusson, D. M., & Horwood, L. J. (2002). Romantic relationships of young people with childhood and adolescent onset antisocial behavior problems. J Abnorm Child Psychol, 30(3), 231–243.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Frick, P. J., Cornell, A. H., Barry, C. T., Bodin, S. D., & Dane, H. E. (2003). Callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems in the prediction of conduct problem severity, aggression, and self-report of delinquency. J Abnorm Child Psychol, 31(4), 457–470.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Frick, P. J., & Ellis, M. (1999). Callous-unemotional traits and subtypes of conduct disorder. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev, 2(3), 149–168.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kruh, I. P., Frick, P. J., & Clements, C. B. (2005). Historical and personality correlates to the violence patterns of juveniles tried as adults. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 32, 69–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Enebrink, P., Andershed, H., & Langstrom, N. (2005). Callous-unemotional traits are associated with clinical severity in referred boys with conduct problems. Nord J Psychiatry, 59(6), 431–440. doi:  10.1080/08039480500360690 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Frick, P. J., & Dickens, C. (2006). Current perspectives on conduct disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rep, 8(1), 59–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Frick, P. J., & White, S. F. (2008). Research review: The importance of callous-unemotional traits for developmental models of aggressive and antisocial behavior. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 49(4), 359–375. doi:  10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01862.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chambers, W. J., Puig-Antich, J., Hirsh, M., Paez, P., Ambrosini, P. J., Tabrizi, M. A., & Davies, M. (1985). The assessment of affective disorders in children and adolescents by semistructured interview. Test-retest reliability of the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children, present episode version. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42(7), 696–702.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Raven, J. C., Court, J. H., & Raven, J. (1998). Progressive Matrices Standart (PM38) (Vol. Oxford psychologists press). Oxford.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cima, M., Raine, A., Meesters, C., & Popma, A. (2013). Validation of the Dutch reactive proactive questionnaire (RPQ): Differential correlates of reactive and proactive aggression from childhood to adulthood. Aggress Behav, 39(2), 99–113. doi:  10.1002/ab.21458 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Vol. 4th). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Frick, P. J. (2003). The inventory of callous-unemotional traits (unpublished rating scale). University of New Orleans. New Orleans.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kimonis, E. R., Frick, P. J., Skeem, J. L., Marsee, M. A., Cruise, K., Munoz, L. C., . . . Morris, A. S. (2008). Assessing callous-unemotional traits in adolescent offenders: Validation of the inventory of callous-unemotional traits. Int J Law Psychiatry, 31(3), 241–252. doi:  10.1016/j.ijlp.2008.04.002
  33. 33.
    Essau, C. A., Sasagawa, S., & Frick, P. J. (2006). Callous-unemotional traits in a community sample of adolescents. Assessment, 13(4), 454–469. doi:  10.1177/1073191106287354 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fanti, K. A., Frick, P. J., & Georgiou, S. (2009). Linking callous--unemotional traits to instrumental and non-instrumental forms of aggression. J Psychopatho Behav Assess, 31, 285–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kimonis, E. R., Fanti, K., Goldweber, A., Marsee, M. A., Frick, P. J., & Cauffman, E. (2013). Callous-unemotional traits in incarcerated adolescents. Psychol Assess doi:  10.1037/a0034585 Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pihet, S., Suter, M., & Stephan, P. (2010). Measuring self-reported callous-unemotional (CU) traits in adolescents of the general population: Inventory for CU traits or CU scale of the YPI? Paper presented at the 2nd International Congress of the European Association for Forensic child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychology and other involved Professions, Basel, Switzerland.Unpublished work. Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pihet, S., Etter, S., Schmid, M., & Stephan, P. (2013). Assessing callous-unemotional (CU) traits in adolescents: Is the inventory of callous-unemotional traits (ICU) valid in different target groups? Psychological Assessment.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fossati, A., Barratt, E. S., Acquarini, E., & Di Ceglie, A. (2002). Psychometric properties of an adolescent version of the Barratt Impulsiveness scale-11 for a sample of Italian high school students. Percept Mot Skills, 95(2), 621–635.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lynch, S. (2007). Introduction to applied bayesian statistics and estimation for social scientist. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    van de Schoot, R., Hoijtink, H., Mulder, J., Van Aken, M. A., de Castro, B. O., Meeus, W., & Romeijn, J. W. (2011). Evaluating expectations about negative emotional states of aggressive boys using Bayesian model selection. Dev Psychol, 47(1), 203–212. doi:  10.1037/a0020957 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Caspi, A. (2000). The child is father of the man: Personality continuities from childhood to adulthood. J Pers Soc Psychol, 78(1), 158–172.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Derefinko, K., DeWall, C. N., Metze, A. V., Walsh, E. C., & Lynam, D. R. (2011). Do different facets of impulsivity predict different types of aggression? Aggress Behav, 37(3), 223–233. doi:  10.1002/ab.20387 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Krueger, R. F., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., White, J., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1996). Delay of gratification, psychopathology, and personality: Is low self-control specific to externalizing problems? J Pers, 64(1), 107–129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    DeWall, C. N., Baumeister, R. F., Stillman, T. F., & Gailliott, M. T. (2007). Violence restrained: Effects of self-regulatory capacity and its depletion on aggressive hehavior. J Exp Soc Psychol, 43, 62–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dollard, J., Miller, N. E., Ford, C. S., & Hovland, C. I. (1962). Frustration and aggression. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cornell, D. G., Warren, J., Hawk, G., Stafford, E., Oram, G., & Pine, D. (1996). Psychopathy in instrumental and reactive violent offenders. J Consult Clin Psychol, 64(4), 783–790.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Caputo, A. A., Frick, P. J., & Brodsky, S. L. (1999). Family violence and juvenile sex offending: Potential mediating roles of psychopathic traits and negative attitudes toward women. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 26, 338–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Edens, J. F., Skeem, J. L., Cruise, K. R., & Cauffman, E. (2001). Assessment of “juvenile psychopathy” and its association with violence: A critical review. Behav Sci Law, 19(1), 53–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sébastien Urben
    • 1
  • Stéphanie Habersaat
    • 1
  • Sandrine Pihet
    • 2
  • Maya Suter
    • 1
  • Jill de Ridder
    • 3
  • Philippe Stéphan
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Unit, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Service, Department of PsychiatryUniversity Hospital Center and University of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  2. 2.School of nursingUniversity of Applied Sciences and Art of Western SwitzerlandFribourgSwitzerland
  3. 3.Departement of PsychologyUniversity of FribourgFribourgSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations