Psychiatric Quarterly

, Volume 84, Issue 4, pp 429–438 | Cite as

Affective Temperaments in Alcohol and Opiate Addictions

  • Yasser Khazaal
  • Marianne Gex-Fabry
  • Audrey Nallet
  • Béatrice Weber
  • Sophie Favre
  • Raphael Voide
  • Daniele Zullino
  • Jean-Michel Aubry
Original Paper


Temperament is considered as a biological disposition reflected by relatively stable features related to mood and reactivity to external and internal stimuli, including variability in emotional reactions. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that affective temperaments might differ according to co-occurring mood disorders among patients with alcohol and/or opiate dependence; to explore the relationship between temperaments and dual substance use disorders (SUDs, alcohol and other drugs). Ninety-two patients attending an alcohol addiction treatment facility and 47 patients in an opiate addiction treatment facility were assessed for SUDs, mood disorders and affective temperaments using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego 39-item auto-questionnaire. Comparison of patients with bipolar disorder, depressive unipolar disorder and no (or substance-induced) mood disorder revealed significant differences for the cyclothymic subscale, with highest scores among patients with bipolar disorder. No difference was observed for the depressive, irritable, hyperthymic and anxious subscales. After adjustment for age, gender and bipolar disorder, irritable temperament was a significant risk factor for past or present history of drug use disorders in patients treated for alcohol addiction (odds ratio [OR] 1.42, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.93). Anxious temperament was a significant risk factor for history of alcohol use disorders in patients treated for opiate addiction (OR 3.30, 95 % CI 1.36–7.99), whereas the hyperthymic subscale appeared as a significant protective factor (OR 0.65, 95 % CI 0.42–0.99). The results highlight the need to consider temperamental aspects in further research to improve the long-term outcome of patient with addictive disorders, who often present complex comorbidity patterns.


Temperament Bipolar disorder Substance use disorder Opiate Alcohol Dual substance use disorder 


Conflict of interests

The authors have no conflict of interests in connection with the submitted article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasser Khazaal
    • 1
  • Marianne Gex-Fabry
    • 2
  • Audrey Nallet
    • 1
    • 2
  • Béatrice Weber
    • 2
  • Sophie Favre
    • 2
  • Raphael Voide
    • 2
  • Daniele Zullino
    • 1
  • Jean-Michel Aubry
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Substance AbuseGeneva University HospitalsGenevaSwitzerland
  2. 2.Division of Psychiatric Specialties, Bipolar ProgramGeneva University HospitalsGenevaSwitzerland

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