Enhancing student outcomes through mentoring, peer counselling and parental involvement
The government of Ghana has designed various initiatives to achieve the Millennium Development Goals on education and the Education for All goals. Despite these initiatives, student outcomes continue to be poorer than desired. Although access to education has improved, student dropout remains a problem and student scores on achievement tests remain low, along with their rates of progression to higher grades. The authors propose a program of mentoring, peer counseling, and parent involvement for children from first through ninth grade. They believe this program is essential to sustain the government’s initiatives on education, and has the potential to achieve the educational outcomes that Ghana and many developing countries require to meet the goals of the EFA agenda.
KeywordsBasic education Mentoring Parental involvement Peer counseling Ghana Education for All (EFA) Student outcomes Universal Basic Education
- Addae-Mensah, I., & Asare, O. M. (2005). Education and literacy. In Population data analysis report, vol. 2, Policy implications of population trends (pp. 170–229). Accra: UNFPA, Ghana Statistical Service.Google Scholar
- Ahrens, K. R., DuBois, D. L., Garrison, M., Spencer, R., Richardson, L. P., & Lozano, P. (2011). Qualitative exploration of relationships with important non-parental adults in the lives of youth in foster care. Children & Youth Services Review, 33(6), 1012–1023. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.01.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Akyeampong, K. (2010). 50 years of educational progress and challenge in Ghana. Pathways to Access monograph no. 33. Sussex: Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transitions and Equity (CREATE), University of Sussex, Centre for International Education.Google Scholar
- Cheng, Y. C. (2005). New paradigm for re-engineering education: Globalization, localization and individualization. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- DfID [Department for International Development] (2000). Poverty elimination and the empowerment of women: Strategies for achieving the international development targets. London: DfID.Google Scholar
- Epstein, J. L. (1987). What principals should know about parent involvement. Principal, 66(3), 6–9.Google Scholar
- Epstein, J. L. (2001). School, family, and community partnerships: Preparing educators and improving schools. Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
- Foster, L. (2001). Effectiveness of mentor programs: Review of the literature from 1995 to 2000. Sacramento: California Research Bureau, California State Library.Google Scholar
- Gestwicki, C. (2007). Home, school, and community relations (6th ed.). New York: Thomson.Google Scholar
- Grossman, P., & Davis, E. (2012). Mentoring that fits. Educational Leadership, 69(8), 54–57.Google Scholar
- Guzman, L., Hampden-Thompson, G., & Lippman, L. (2003). A cross-national analysis of the relationship between family strengths and educational achievement. Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.Google Scholar
- Kadingdi, S. (2004). Policy initiatives for change and innovation in basic education programmes in Ghana. Educate, 4(2), 3–18.Google Scholar
- Karge, B. D., & Lasky, B. (2011). Involvement of language minority parents of children with disabilities in their child’s school achievement. Multicultural Education, 18(3), 29.Google Scholar
- Mack, D. M. (1998, Fall). The psychological features of effective mentors for girls and young women. The WAMLW Journal, 24–25. http://people.uwec.edu/mackmd/documents/psychosocialFeaturesEffectiveMentors.pdf.
- McCowan, C., & McKenzie, M. (1997). A guide to career education. Sydney: New Hobson Press.Google Scholar
- McMahon, M., Limerick, B., & Gillies, J. (2004). Mentoring as a career guidance activity: Fostering non-traditional career exploration for girls. Canadian Journal of Career Development, 3, 1–7.Google Scholar
- MOEC [Ministry of Education and Culture] (1986). Basic education for self-employment and rural development in Ghana. Accra: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
- MOE [Ministry of Education] (1994). Towards learning for all: Basic education in Ghana by the year 2000. Education sector paper as a follow-up to the National Program of Action. Accra: Government of Ghana.Google Scholar
- MOE [Ministry of Education] (1996). Free compulsory universal basic education in Ghana by the year 2005. Basic education sector implementation program policy document. Accra: Government of Ghana.Google Scholar
- Mitchell Group (2009). Review of basic education quality in Ghana, final report. Washington, DC: USAID.Google Scholar
- NAS [National Academy of Sciences], NAE [National Academy of Engineering] & IOM [Institute of Medicine] (1997). Adviser, teacher, role model, friend: On being a mentor to students in science and engineering. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
- Onyejekwe, C. J. (2002). A review of development approaches to poverty reduction: A gender perspective. http://www.eldis.org/go/display&id=12873&type=Document#.Uhy3lhusi-0.
- Republic of Ghana (1992). Fourth Republic Constitution of the Republic of Ghana. Accra: Government of Ghana.Google Scholar
- Sottie, C. A. (2011). Stemming the tide: School dropout in Ghana. Saarbrücken: Lambert Academic Publishing.Google Scholar
- Sutter, D. L. (1999). The mentoring compass: Directing knowledge towards the future. Master’s thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-060399211901/unrestricted/etd.pdf.
- Taft, A. J., Small, R., Hegarty, K. L., Lumley, J., Watson, L. F., & Gold, L. (2009). MOSAIC (Mothers’ Advocates in the Community): Protocol and sample description of a cluster randomised trial of mentor mother support to reduce intimate partner violence among pregnant or recent mothers. BMC Public Health, 9, 1–13. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tekin, A. K. (2011). Parent involvement revisited: Background, theories, and models. International Journal of Applied Educational Studies, 11(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
- Tierney, J. P., Grossman, J. B., & Resch, N. L. (1995). Making a difference: An impact study of Big Brothers, Big Sisters. http://www.issuelab.org/resource/making_a_difference_an_impact_study_of_big_brothersbig_sisters_re_issue_of_1995_study.
- UNESCO (2011). The hidden crisis: Armed conflict and education. Global Monitoring Report. Paris: UNESCO. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001907/190743e.pdf.
- United Nations (2000). The world’s women, 2000: Trends and statistics. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar