Teacher education for inclusion in Europe
Teacher education issues are high on the policy agenda across Europe. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (2006) is gaining momentum and providing a force for change, supported by many communications both internationally and at European level that recognize how central education is in efforts to develop a more equitable society. In moving towards a more inclusive education system, there is a need to train all teachers to meet the diverse needs of all learners in their classrooms and to work collaboratively with colleagues. Drawing on key documents, this article outlines the policy context and reviews the available evidence supporting the move towards teacher education for inclusion across Europe. It presents the work of the European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education, to highlight some of the opportunities and challenges within its member countries in addressing teacher education for inclusion.
KeywordsTeacher education Inclusion European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education
- Acedo, C., Amadio, M., & Opertti, R. (with Brady, J., Duncombe, L., Weyermann, M., Huang, Y., & Xu, X.) (Eds.) (2008). Defining an inclusive education agenda: Reflections around the 48th session of the International Conference on Education, November 2008. Geneva: UNESCO IBE.Google Scholar
- Arnesen, A., Allan, J., & Simonsen, E. (Eds.). (2009). Policies and practices for teaching sociocultural diversity: Concepts, principles and challenges in teacher education. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.Google Scholar
- Bartolo, P., et al. (2007). Preparing teachers for responding to student diversity: Findings from the Comenius DTMp project. In P. A. Bartolo, A. Mol Lous, & T. Hofsäss (Eds.), Responding to student diversity: Teacher education and classroom practice (pp. 23–42). Malta: University of Malta.Google Scholar
- Cardona, C. M. (2009). Teacher education students’ beliefs of inclusion and perceived competence to teach students with disabilities in Spain. Journal of the International Association of Special Education, 10(1), 33–41.Google Scholar
- Casanova, R., Charentin, P., Cosnard, B., Croisy, J. P., Jollec, M. P., & Rault, C. (2006). French beginning teachers confront special educational needs in some of their pupils. In H. Gash (Ed.), Beginning teachers and diversity in school: A European study (pp. 19–57). Report of research undertaken within Comenius Project 94158-CP-1-2001-FR. Bragança: Serie Estudos, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança.Google Scholar
- Cefai, C., Fenech, L., & Galea, E. (2007). Initial teacher education for individual educational needs: Newly qualified Maltese teachers’ views. In P. Bartolo, A. Mol Lous, & T. Hofsäss (Eds.), Responding to student diversity: Teacher education and classroom practice (pp. 63–76). Malta: University of Malta.Google Scholar
- Commission of the European Communities (2007, 3 August). Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament: Improving the quality of teacher education. COM (2007) 392 final. Brussels: Commission. http://ec.europa.eu/education/com392_en.pdf.
- Commission of the European Communities (2008) Green paper. Migration and mobility: Challenges and opportunities for the EU education system. Brussels 3.7.2008 COM (2008) 423 final.Google Scholar
- Council of the European Union (2007, 15 November). Conclusions of the Council and of the representatives of the governments of the member states meeting within the Council of 15 November 2007, on improving the quality of teacher education. Brussels: European Union. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2007:300:0006:0009:EN:PDF.
- Council of the European Union (2009a). Council conclusions on a strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training. ET 2020. 2941 Meeting of the Education, Youth and Culture Council. Brussels, 12 May 2009. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/educ/107622.pdf.
- Council of the European Union (2009b, 26 November). Council conclusions on the professional development of teachers and school leaders. Brussels: Council of the EU. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2009:302:0006:0009:EN:PDF.
- Council of the European Union (2010, 11 May). Council conclusions on the social dimension of education and training, 3013 Meeting of the Education, Youth and Culture Council. Brussels: Council of the EU. http://www.european-agency.org/news/news-files/Council-Conclusions-May-2010-Social-Dimension.pdf.
- Esteve, J. M. (2009). La formacion de profesores: Bases teoricas para el desarrollo de programas de formación inicial [Teacher training: Theoretical basis for the development of pre-service training programmes]. Revista de Educacion, 350, 15–29.Google Scholar
- European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education (2009). Key principles for promoting quality in inclusive education: Recommendations for policy makers. Odense, Denmark: European Agency. http://www.european-agency.org/publications/ereports/key-principles-in-special-needs-education/key-principles-in-special-needs-education.
- European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education (2010). Teacher education for inclusion. International literature review. Odense, Denmark: European Agency. http://www.european-agency.org/agency-projects/teacher-education-for-inclusion/teacher-education-web-files/TE4I-Lit-Review.pdf.
- European Commission (2008, 16 December). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: An updated strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training COM (2008) 865 final. Brussels: European Union. http://ec.europa.eu/education/lifelong-learning-policy/doc/com865_en.pdf.
- Franzkowiak, T. (2009). Integration, Inklusion, Gemeinsamer Unterricht: Themen für die Grundschullehramtsausbildung an Hochschulen in Deutschland? Eine Bestandsaufnahme. [Integration, inclusion, inclusive education: Topics of primary school teacher training at universities in Germany? A survey]. http://bidok.uibk.ac.at/library/franzkowiak-integration.html.
- Guojonsdottir, H., Cacciattolo, M., Dakich, E., Davies, A., Kelly, C., & Dalmau, M. C. (2008). Transformative pathways: Inclusive pedagogies in teacher education. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 40(2), 165–182.Google Scholar
- Hajkova, V. (2007). Nová profesionalita pedagogů v inkluzivní školní praxi [The new expertise of teachers in inclusive school practice]. In O. Šimoník, J. Škrabánková, & J. Šťáva (Eds.), Dimenze pedagogické práce s nadanými žáky: Sborník referátů z mezinárodního semináře [CD-ROM]. Brno: MSD, spol. s.r.o. 94–103.Google Scholar
- Hollins, E. R., & Guzman, M. T. (2005). Research on preparing teachers for diverse populations. In M. Cochran-Smith & K. M. Zeichner (Eds.), Studying teacher education (pp. 477–548). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Kaikkonen, L., Maunonen-Eskelinen, I., & Aidukiene, T. (2007). Supporting teachers’ competences towards the development of a more inclusive school: Listening to the voices of students with special educational needs in educational transitions. Scientific Papers, University of Latvia, 715, 132–144. Riga: Latvian University Raksti. http://pdc.ceu.hu/archive/00005366/01/715.pdf#page=132.
- Kavkler, M. (2009). Vloga pri uresničevanju inkluzije [The teacher’s role in inclusion]. Vzgoja in izobraževanje, letnik, 40(5–6), 6–11.Google Scholar
- Mattsson, M., Dage Ore, H., & Pisila, S. (2006). Vad är värdefull specialpedagogisk kunskap? [What knowledge is of value in special education?]. Stockholm: Lärarhögsk.Google Scholar
- McKinsey and Company (2007). How the world’s best performing school systems come out on top. http://www.mckinsey.com/locations/UK_Ireland/~/media/Reports/UKI/Education_report.ashx.
- Molina, S. (2006). Teacher education students’ and first year in-service teachers’ perceptions about their initial education in relation to the special educational needs of Spanish pupils. In H. Gash (Ed.), Beginning teachers and diversity in school: A European study (pp. 57–76). Report of research undertaken within Comenius Project 94158-CP-1-2001-FR. Bragança: Serie Estudos, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança.Google Scholar
- Muñoz, E. (2009). La formacion del profesorado de educacion secundaria: Contenidos y aprendizajes docents [Secondary teacher training: Teaching content and teacher learning]. Revista de Educacion, 350, 477–548). Madrid: Instituto de Evaluacion, Ministerio de Educacion.Google Scholar
- Naukkarinen, A. (2008, 2–4 November). Developing inclusive primary school teacher education: Experiences of Department of Teacher Education at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. Paper presented at the second cross-national invitational symposium on teacher education for inclusion, University of Aberdeen.Google Scholar
- Niemi, H., & Jukku-Sihvomen, R. (2009). El curriculo en al formacion del profesorado de Educacion Secundaria. [Curriculum of secondary school teacher training]. Revista de Educacion, 350, 173–202. Madrid: Instituto de Evaluacion, Ministerio de Educacion.Google Scholar
- Nuova, A. (2009). Para una formacion de profesores construida dentro de la profesion [Towards a teacher training built into the profession]. Revista de Educacion, 350, 203–218. Madrid: Instituto de Evaluacion, Ministerio de Educacion.Google Scholar
- OECD [Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development] (2005). Teachers matter: Attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers. http://www.oecd.org/document/52/0,3343,en_2649_39263231_34991988_1_1_1_1,00.html#EO.
- ONFRIH [Observatoire national sur la formation, la recherche et l’innovation sur le handicap] (2008). Report of the national observatory for training, research and innovation in disability. Paris: Délégation Interministérielle aux Personnes Handicapées. http://www.travail-emploi-sante.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/Rapport_ONFRIH_2008.pdf.
- Peters, S. (2004). Inclusive education: An EFA strategy for all children. Washington DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
- Rodrigues, D. (2009, 18–20 October). Inclusion and teacher education: Who reforms the reformers? Paper presented at third cross-national invitational symposium on teacher education for inclusive education, University of Aberdeen.Google Scholar
- Saloviita, T. (2005). Erityisopetus opettajankoulutuksen sisältöalueena [Special education as a content area of teacher education]. In R. Jakku-Sihvonen (Ed.), Uudenlaisia maistereita (pp. 339–351). Keuruu: Otava.Google Scholar
- Tūbele, S. (2008, 2–4 November). The study course “Introduction to special needs education”: A step towards teacher education for inclusive education at the University of Latvia. Paper presented at the second cross-national invitational symposium on teacher education for inclusion, University of Aberdeen.Google Scholar
- UNESCO (2000). The Dakar framework for action: Education for All—Meeting our collective commitments. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
- UNESCO IBE (2008). Inclusive education: The way of the future. Conclusions and recommendations of the 48th session of the International Conference on Education (ICE), Geneva, 25–28 November 2008. http://www.ibe.unesco.org/en/ice/48th-session-2008/conclusions-and-recommendations.html.
- United Nations (2006). Convention on the rights of people with disabilities. http://www.un.org/disabilities/convention/conventionfull.shtml.
- Willms, D. J. (2006). Learning divides: Ten policy questions about the performance and equity of schools and schooling systems. Montreal: UNESCO Institute for Statistics.Google Scholar
- Young, K. (2008). I don’t think I’m the right person for that: Theoretical and institutional questions about a combined credential program. Disability Studies Quarterly, 28(4), 1–16. http://www.dsq-sds.org/article/view/132/132.