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Prevention Science

, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp 970–974 | Cite as

Correction to: A Cost Analysis of School-Based Lifestyle Interventions

  • Marije OosterhoffEmail author
  • Hans Bosma
  • Onno C. P. van Schayck
  • Manuela A. Joore
Correction
  • 281 Downloads

Correction to: Prevention Science (2018) 19:716–727

  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-018-0918-1

In the article, ‘A Cost Analysis of School-Based Lifestyle Interventions’, we calculated the societal costs of two school-based lifestyle interventions: ‘the Healthy Primary School of the Future’ and ‘the Physical Activity School’. Unfortunately, it became clear to us that the cost calculation for the Physical Activity Schools was not entirely correct.

It was stated that the length of the school day was extended at Healthy Primary Schools of the Future and at Physical Activity Schools to facilitate the implementation of activities. The length of the school day was valued in the cost calculations as it might result in increased productivity of primary caregivers (e.g. more possibilities for work). However, at Physical Activity Schools the length school day did not became longer in comparison to control schools.

As a sensitivity analysis we excluded the value of the extended school day. This was done as the value of this cost item is highly uncertain (e.g. gains in productivity of primary caregivers could be offset by potential utility losses). The results of this sensitivity analysis are therefore now representative of the updated base-case results for the Physical Activity Schools. Table 2 represents the costs of HPSF and PAS for the first year of implementation. When excluding the value of the extended school day for PAS, the costs amounted to €505 per child per year or €3.16 per child per day. In the hypothetical steady state, the costs were €346 per child per year or €2.16 per child per day (Table 3).

In the article, we concluded that the costs for the education sector were fully compensated for the Physical Activity School and almost fully compensated for the Healthy Primary School of the Future by the savings within the household sector. Based on the updated calculations, we conclude that a small investment is required for the delivery of the Physical Activity School (€2.16 per child per day for the Physical Activity School and €0.96 for the Healthy Primary School of the Future).

[1] Oosterhoff, M., Bosma, H., van Schayck, O.C.P., Joore, M.A. (2018). A cost analysis of school-based lifestyle interventions. Prevention Science, 19, 716–727.

Table 2

Per child costs of HPSF and PAS for the first year after implementation

Cost items for the first year after implementation

Time investment

Volume (per school)

Unit price

Stakeholder perspective

Education

Household & leisure

Labour & social security

Healthcare

Societal perspective

HPSF

PAS

HPSF

PAS

HPSF

PAS

HPSF

PAS

HPSF

PAS

Personnel

  

 Program coordinator

Coordination

4 schools: 1 FTE

€112,000 / FTE 1

€84

€84

        

  School project leaders

Coordination

HPSF: 0.5 FTE; PAS: 0.4 FTE

€65,000 / FTE 1

€97

€78

  Volunteers

Assisting during lunch break and activities

 

Financial compensation:

HPSF: €12,645 1

PAS: €8145 1

€38

€24

€53 A

€17 A

      

Time investment

HPSF: 12 volunteers, 1 h/day,

4 days/week (upper grades 5 days/week), 40 weeks

PAS: 7 volunteers, 1 h/day,

3 days/week (upper grades 4 days/week), 40 weeks

Time investment

€14 / hour 4

  Primary caregivers

Per child fee for supervision during lunch break

4 times / week, 40 weeks

€1 / day not charged to carers 1

€160

€160

€-160

€-160

      

Parental evaluation committee

5 times / year, 1 h, 10 persons

€14/ h 4

  

€2

€2

      

Value of the extended school hours

0.5 h freed-up, 4 times / week

2 children / household

€14 / hour 4

  

€-562

       

  Beneficiaries of unemployment benefits

Preparing lunches as part of reintegration to the labour market

1 person, 15 h/week

NA E

          

  External parties from the leisure sector

Giving workshops

 

€6675 1

€20

€20

€0 B

€0 B

      

  Cross-discipline coordinators from the local government

Organizing activities

1 FTE / 4 schools

€50,000 / FTE 1

€37

€37

  

€0 C

€0 C

    

  Pedagogical staff from childcare partners

Guiding lunch break and activities

HPSF: 12 persons, 2 h/day,

4 days/week (upper grades 5 days/week), 40 weeks

PAS: 8 persons, 1.5 h/day,

3 days/week (upper grades 4 days/week), 40 weeks

€65,000/ FTE 1

€524

€204

  

€0 D

€0 D

    

Materials

  

  Transport

 

€7097 3

€21

€21

        

  Accommodations

1 h, 4 days/week

€17.5/h 3

€8

€8

        

  Food (including personnel from caterer)

HPSF: 4 times / week, 40 weeks

Cost: €2.46 / child / day 3

Offset: €-1.86 / day 5

€394 F

 

€-298 F

       

  Curriculum materials

1 set per year

€2500 / school 1

€7

€7

        

  Monitoring equipment

1 survey

€1200 / survey 1

€4

€4

        

Total costs

  

Net costs (per child/year)

€1394

€647

€-965

€142

€0

€0

€0

€0

€429

€505

  Personnel

€959

€606

€-667

€-142

€0

€0

€0

€0

€292

€464

  Materials

€434

€41

€-298

€0

€0

€0

€0

€0

€137

€41

Net costs (per child/day)

€8.71

€4.04

€-6.03

€-0.89

€0.00

€0.00

€0.00

€0.00

€2.68

€3.16

HPSF = Healthy Primary School of the Future; PAS = Physical Activity School; FTE = full-time equivalent.

Discrepancies between the sum of cost items may be due to rounding.

1Budget ‘the Healthy Primary School of the Future’

2Productivity costs of paid labour (Zorginstituut Nederland 2015)

3Accounting data ‘the Healthy Primary School of the Future’

4Productivity costs of unpaid labour (Zorginstituut Nederland 2015)

5Household expenses on children’s lunches (NIBUD 2017)

6 Minimum wage (“Minimumloon 2016”)

7Unemployment benefits (Rijksoverheid 2016)

8Income tax (Belastingdienst 2016)

AValue of time investment minus financial compensation

B-DFinancial contributions fully compensated the time investments

EAssumed that offsets due to the reintegration of beneficiaries only applied to the steady state

FFood costs are a positive cost to the education sector and a negative cost to the household sector

Table 3

Per child costs of HPSF and PAS for a hypothetical steady state

Cost items for the steady state

Activities

Volume (per school)

Unit price

Stakeholder perspective

Education

Household & leisure

Labour & social security

Healthcare

Societal perspective

HPSF

PAS

HPSF

PAS

HPSF

PAS

HPSF

PAS

HPSF

PAS

Personnel

  

  Program coordinator

Coordination

4 schools: 0.25 FTE A

€112,000 / FTE 1

€21

€21

        

  School project leaders

Coordination

0.25 FTE A

€65,000 / FTE 1

€49

€49

        

  Volunteers

Assisting during lunch break and activities

 

Financial compensation:

HPSF: €12,645 1; PAS: €8145 1

€38

€24

€53 B

€17 B

      

Time investment

HPSF: 12 volunteers, 1 h/day,

4 days/week (upper grades 5 days/week), 40 weeks

PAS: 7 volunteers, 1 h/day,

3 days/week (upper grades 4 days/week), 40 weeks

Time investment

€14 / hour 4

 

  Primary caregivers

Parental evaluation committee

5 times / year, 1 h, 10 persons

€14/ h 4

  

€2

€2

      

Value of the extended school hours

0.5 h freed-up, 4 times / week

2 children / household

€14 / hour 4

  

€-562

       

  Beneficiaries of unemployment benefits

Preparing lunches as part of reintegration to the labour market

1 person, 15 h/week

Income level: €1525 / month 6,

Unemployment benefits: €1320 / month7; €8.80 / hour 6

Income taxes: 36.55% 8

  

€-3 C

€0

€-22 C

€0

    

  External parties from the leisure sector

Giving workshops

 

€6675 1

€20

€20

€0 D

€0 D

      

  Pedagogical staff from childcare partners

Guiding lunch break and activities

HPSF: 12 persons, 2 h/day,

4 days/week (upper grades 5 days/week), 40 weeks

PAS: 8 persons, 1.5 h/day,

3 days/week (upper grades 4 days/week), 40 weeks

€65,000/ FTE 1

€524

€204

  

€0 E

€0 E

    

Materials

  

  Food (including personnel from caterer)

HPSF: 4 times / week, 40 weeks

Cost: €2 / child / day A

Offset: €1.86 / day 5

€320 F

€0

€-298 F

€0

      

  Curriculum materials

1 set per year

€2500 / school 1

€7

€7

        

  Monitoring equipment

1 survey

€1200 / survey 1

€4

€4

        

Total costs

  

Net costs (per child/year)

€982

€328

€-807

€18

€-22

€0

€0

€0

€153

€346

  Personnel

€651

€317

€-510

€18

€-22

€0

€0

€0

€120

€335

  Materials

€331

€11

€-298

€0

€0

€0

€0

€0

€33

€11

Net costs (per child/day)

€6.14

€2.05

€-5.05

€0.11

€-0.13

€0.00

€0.00

€0.00

€0.96

€2.16

HPSF = Healthy Primary School of the Future; PAS = Physical Activity School; FTE = full-time equivalent.

Discrepancies between the sum of cost items may be due to rounding.

1Budget ‘the Healthy Primary School of the Future’

2Productivity costs of paid labour (Zorginstituut Nederland 2015)

3Accounting data ‘the Healthy Primary School of the Future’

4Productivity costs of unpaid labour (Zorginstituut Nederland 2015)

5Household expenses on children’s lunches (NIBUD 2017)

6 Minimum wage (“Minimumloon 2016”)

7Unemployment benefits (Rijksoverheid 2016)

8Income tax (Belastingdienst 2016)

ASteady state assumption

BValue of time investment minus financial compensation

CHousehold: income level minus unemployment benefits; social security: savings from unemployment benefits and earnings from income taxes

D-EFinancial contributions fully compensated the time investments

FFood costs are a positive cost to the education sector and a negative cost to the household sector

Notes

Copyright information

© Society for Prevention Research 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marije Oosterhoff
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hans Bosma
    • 2
  • Onno C. P. van Schayck
    • 3
  • Manuela A. Joore
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Medical Technology Assessment (KEMTA), Maastricht University Medical Centre MUMC+/Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI)Maastricht UniversityMaastrichtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Social Medicine, Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life SciencesMaastricht UniversityMaastrichtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Family Medicine, Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life SciencesMaastricht UniversityMaastrichtThe Netherlands

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