Prevention Science

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 507–515 | Cite as

Longitudinal Predictors of Behavioral Intentions and HIV Service Use Among Men Who Have Sex with Men

  • Larissa A. McGarrity
  • David M. Huebner
  • Carol J. Nemeroff
  • Rae Jean Proeschold-Bell


HIV prevention interventions are generally effective at reducing sexual risk. Although these interventions have been widely disseminated in the USA, their success depends largely on whether subpopulations who have been prioritized for risk reduction are willing to participate. Understanding the factors predicting service utilization is critical to maximizing public health benefit. HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 613) were enrolled in a longitudinal study investigating whether theoretically derived psychosocial variables (past behavior, cues to action, perceived susceptibility, positive expectations, perceived barriers, personal discomfort, and recent condomless anal intercourse) predicted intentions to use HIV prevention services and service use behavior across multiple categories (information seeking, structured service use, HIV testing, and volunteering/working in prevention services). Cues to action (including life events such as friend’s recent HIV diagnosis) and past service use emerged as the most consistent predictors of intentions and actual service use. Perceived susceptibility, positive expectations, and condomless anal intercourse predicted some categories of service use indirectly through intentions. Contrary to predictions, perceived barriers and personal discomfort predicted intentions but were not predictors of service use. Intentions generally predicted behavior, with the exception of structured service use. This study addressed methodological limitations of prior research and utilized data from a longitudinal sample of MSM to discover predictors of access to HIV prevention services. Understanding who accesses HIV services and why will allow for directed strategies to improve dissemination and utilization.


Health behavior Prevention interventions MSM Intentions HIV/aids 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human Studies

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Grant Support

This research was supported by a grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to the Arizona Department of Health Services through Cooperative Agreement #99004.


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Copyright information

© Society for Prevention Research 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Larissa A. McGarrity
    • 1
  • David M. Huebner
    • 2
  • Carol J. Nemeroff
    • 3
  • Rae Jean Proeschold-Bell
    • 4
  1. 1.University of Utah School of MedicineSalt Lake CityUSA
  2. 2.George Washington UniversityWashingtonUSA
  3. 3.University of Southern MainePortlandUSA
  4. 4.Duke UniversityDurhamUSA

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