Corporate Externalities: A Challenge to the Further Success of Prevention Science
- 407 Downloads
The full benefit of prevention science will not be realized until we learn how to influence organizational practices. The marketing of tobacco, alcohol, and food and corporate advocacy for economic policies that maintain family poverty are examples of practices we must influence. This paper analyzes the evolution of such practices in terms of their selection by economic consequences. A strategy for addressing these critical risk factors should include: (a) systematic research on the impact of corporate practices on each of the most common and costly psychological and behavior problems; (b) empirical analyses of the consequences that select harmful corporate practices; (c) assessment of the impact of policies that could affect problematic corporate practices; and (d) research on advocacy organizations to understand the factors that influence their growth and to help them develop effective strategies for influencing corporate externalities.
KeywordsPrevention Intervention Policymakers Organizational practices Advocacy
The National Cancer Institute (Grant CA-38273) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (Grant P30 DA018760) provided financial support for the completion of the work on this manuscript. The author wishes to thank Christine Cody for her editorial input and assistance with references.
- Agostinelli, G., & Grube, J. W. (2002). Alcohol counter-advertising and the media: A review of recent research. Alcohol Research & Health, 26, 15–21.Google Scholar
- A youth program that worked (Editorial). (1995, March 20). New York Times, Accessed 9/10/07 http://www.eisenhowerfoundation.org/aboutus/media/NYTimesAyouthprogramWorkedMar95.html.
- Bajaj, V. (2008, March 27). Inquiry assails accounting firm in lender’s fall. New York Times.Google Scholar
- Biglan, A. (2004). Direct written testimony in the case of the U.S.A. vs. Phillip Morris et al. U.S. Department of Justice [On-line]. Available: http://www.ori.org/oht/testimony.html.
- Biglan, A. (2009). The role of advocacy organizations in reducing negative externalities. Invited paper for Special Issue of Journal of Behavioral Management, 29, 1–16.Google Scholar
- Biglan, A., Brennan, P. A., Foster, S. L., & Holder, H. D. (2004). Helping adolescents at risk: Prevention of multiple problem behaviors. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Bonnie, R. J., Stratton, K., Wallace, R. B., & Committee on Reducing Tobacco Use. (2007). Ending the tobacco problem: A blueprint for the nation. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine.Google Scholar
- Brownell, K. D., & Horgen, K. B. (2004). Food fight: The inside story of the food industry, America’s obesity crisis, and what we can do about it. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control. (2002). Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and economic costs—United States, 1995–1999. MMWR, 51, 300–303.Google Scholar
- Dahl, G. & Lochner, L. (2005). The impact of family income on child development. IRP discussion paper no. 1305–05. Madison, WI: Institute for Research on Poverty.Google Scholar
- Diamond, J. (1999). Guns, germs, and steel: The fates of human societies. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
- Diamond, J. (2004). Collapse: How societies choose to fail or succeed. New York: Viking Adult.Google Scholar
- Fellmeth, R. C. (2009). Child poverty in the United States: The need for a constitutional amendment and a cultural sea change. American Bar Association Human Rights Magazine online. Accessed September 29, 2009 at http://www.abanet.org/irr/hr/winter05/childpovertyinus.html.
- Flay, B. R. (1987). Selling the smokeless society: 56 evaluated mass media programs and campaigns worldwide. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
- Gershoff, E. T., Aber, J. L., & Raver, C. C. (2003). Child poverty in the United States: An evidence-based conceptual framework for programs and policies. In F. Jacobs, D. Wertlieb, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of applied developmental science: Promoting positive child, adolescent, and family development through research, policies, and programs (Vol. 2, pp. 81–136). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Glenn, S. S. (2004). Individual behavior, culture, and social change. Behavior Analyst, 27, 133–151.Google Scholar
- Grube, J. W. (2004). Alcohol in the media: Drinking portrayals, alcohol advertising, and alcohol consumption among youth. In R. Bonnie & M. E. O’Connell (Eds.), Reducing underage drinking: A collective responsibility, background papers [CD-ROM]. Committee on developing a strategy to reduce and prevent underage drinking. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Gwartney, J., Macpherson, D., Sobel, R., & Stroup, R. (2009). Special topic: Crash of 2008. Available online. Accessed October 3, 2009 at http://www.commonsenseeconomics.com/Activities/Crisis/CSE.CrashOf2008.pdf.
- Harris, M. (1974). Cows, pigs, wars, witches: The riddles of culture. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
- Hibbeln, J. R., Nieminen, L. R., Blasbalg, T. L., Riggs, J. A., & Lands, W. E. (2006b). Healthy intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids: Estimations considering worldwide diversity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 83, 1483S–1493S.Google Scholar
- Himmelstein, D., Warren, E., Thorne, D., & Woolhander, S. (2005). Illness and injury as contributors to bankruptcy. Health Affairs Web Exclusive, W5–63, 02.Google Scholar
- Johnson, S. (2006). The ghost map. New York: Riverhead Books.Google Scholar
- Kaufman, N. J., Castrucci, B. C., Mowery, P. D., Gerlach, K. K., Emont, S., & Orleans, C. T. (2002). Predictors of change on the smoking uptake continuum among adolescents. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 156, 581–587.Google Scholar
- Krugman, P. (2007, April 27). Gilded once more. The New York Times, Editorial section. Google Scholar
- Kunešová, M., Braunerová, R., Hlavatý, P., Tvrzická, E., Staòková, B., Škrha, J., et al. (2006). The influence of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and very low calorie diet during a short-term weight reducing regimen on weight loss and serum fatty acid composition in severely obese women. Physiological Research, 55, 63–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lapham, L. (2004). Tentacles of rage. Harper’s Magazine.Google Scholar
- Levinson, D. (2004). Encyclopedia of homelessness (Vol. 1). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Martin, A. (2007, January 31). As Altria sheds Kraft, Wall Street cheers: As Altria sheds Kraft Foods, tobacco giant’s shares gain. International Herald Tribune, Business. Last accessed August 29, 2007 at http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/01/31/business/tobacco.php.
- Morris, P., Duncan, G. J., & Rodrigues, C. (2004) Does money really matter? Estimating impacts of family income on children’s achievement with data from random-assignment experiments. Last accessed September 19, 2008 at http://depts.washington.edu/crfam/seminarseries03-04/MorrisDuncanRodrigues_Feb04.pdf.
- National Cancer Institute. (2008). The role of the media in promoting and discouraging tobacco use (NCI Tobacco Control Monograph 19). Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute.Google Scholar
- National Research Council and Institute of Medicine (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: Progress and possibilities. Committee on Prevention of Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse Among Children, Youth, and Young Adults: Research Advances and Promising Interventions. In M. E. O’Connell, T. Boat, & K. E. Warner (Eds). Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Nestle, M. (2002). Food politics: How the food industry influences nutrition and health (California studies in food and culture). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2005). Childcare and child development: Results from the NICHD study of early childcare and youth development. Washington, DC: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network.Google Scholar
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2008). Glossary of statistical terms: Externalities. Accessed May 2, 2008 at http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=3215.
- Pollan, M. (2006). The omnivore’s dilemma. New York: Penguin USA.Google Scholar
- Pollan, M. (2007, January 28). Unhappy meals. The New York Times Magazine online. Accessed September 10, 2007 at http://www.michaelpollan.com/article.php?id=87.
- Pollin, R. (2002). What is a living wage? Considerations from Santa Monica, California. Review of Radical Political Economics, Fall, 267–73.Google Scholar
- Pollin, R., Brenner, M. D., Wicks-Lim, J., & Luce, S. (2008). A measure of fairness: The economics of living wages and minimum wages in the United States. Amherst, MA: Political Economy Research Institute.Google Scholar
- Ponting, C. (1991). A green history of the world: The environment and the collapse of great civilizations. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
- Saffer, H., & Dave, D. (2003). Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 9676.Google Scholar
- Sugarman, S. D. (2005). Let’s try performance-based regulation to attack our smoking and obesity problems. Boalt Hall Transcript, 38, 30–31.Google Scholar
- Triggle, N. (2009, September 9). Doctors want booze marketing ban. BBC Health News online. Last accessed October 29, 2009 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/8242385.stm.
- United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). (2007). Child Poverty in perspective: An overview of child well-being in rich countries. Innocenti Report Card 7. Florence, Italy: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.Google Scholar
- United States v. Philip Morris et al., Civil No. 99-CV-02496GK (U.S. Dist. Ct., DC, 2006).Google Scholar
- U.S. Census Bureau (2003). Current population survey, 1960–2002. Annual social and economic supplements. Available online at http://www.uscensus.gov.
- While, D., Kelly, S., Huang, W., & Charlton, A. (1996). Cigarette advertising and onset of smoking in children: Questionnaire. British Medical Journal, 31, 398–399.Google Scholar
- Whittaker, W.G. (2003). The federal minimum wage and average hourly earnings of manufacturing production workers (CRS report for Congress). Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. Available at Digital Commons @ ILR, Cornell University ILR School. Accessed September 19, 2008 at http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1237&context=key_workplace.
- Wilson, D. S. (2003). Darwin’s cathedral. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar