Phylogenetic analysis of the light-harvesting system in Chromera velia
- 453 Downloads
Chromera velia is a newly discovered photosynthetic eukaryotic alga that has functional chloroplasts closely related to the apicoplast of apicomplexan parasites. Recently, the chloroplast in C. velia was shown to be derived from the red algal lineage. Light-harvesting protein complexes (LHC), which are a group of proteins involved in photon capture and energy transfer in photosynthesis, are important for photosynthesis efficiency, photo-adaptation/accumulation and photo-protection. Although these proteins are encoded by genes located in the nucleus, LHC peptides migrate and function in the chloroplast, hence the LHC may have a different evolutionary history compared to chloroplast evolution. Here, we compare the phylogenetic relationship of the C. velia LHCs to LHCs from other photosynthetic organisms. Twenty-three LHC homologues retrieved from C. velia EST sequences were aligned according to their conserved regions. The C. velia LHCs are positioned in four separate groups on trees constructed by neighbour-joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. A major group of seventeen LHCs from C. velia formed a separate cluster that was closest to dinoflagellate LHC, and to LHC and fucoxanthin chlorophyll-binding proteins from diatoms. One C. velia LHC sequence grouped with LI1818/LI818-like proteins, which were recently identified as environmental stress-induced protein complexes. Only three LHC homologues from C. velia grouped with the LHCs from red algae.
KeywordsLight-harvesting protein complexes (LHC) Chromera velia (C. velia) Membrane-spanning regions Chlorophyll-binding protein complexes
Fucoxanthin chlorophyll-binding protein
Light-harvesting protein complexes
Light-harvesting complexes bound to photosystem I
Light-harvesting complexes bound to photosystem II
Magnesium divinyl pheoporphyrin a5 monomethyl ester
M.C. holds an Australian Research Council Queen Elizabeth II Fellowship and thanks the Australian Research Council for support. This work was partially supported by Australian Research Council Discovery Project DP0986372 to D.C. and J.Š. H.P. would like to thank Dr. P. Loughlin, Mr. Y. Lin and Ms. Y. Li for helpful discussions. M.C. thanks Dr. Roger Hiller for reading the manuscript.
- Gantt E, Grabowski B, Cunningham FX Jr (2003) Antenna systems of red algae: phycobilisomes with photosdystem II and chlorophyll complexes with photosystem I. In: Green BR, Parson WW (eds) Light-harvesting antennas in photosynthesis. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, pp 307–322Google Scholar
- Green BR (2003) The Evolution of light-harvesting antennas. In: Green BR, Parson WW (eds) Light-harvesting antennas in photosynthesis. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, pp 129–168Google Scholar
- Green BR (2007) The evolution of light-harvesting antennas. In: Falkowski PG, Knoll AH (eds) Evolution of primary producers in the sea. Elsevier, Burlington, pp 37–53Google Scholar
- Hiller RG, Broughton MJ, Wrench PM, Sharples FP, Miller DJ, Catmull J (1999) Dinoflagellate light-harvesting proteins: genes, structure and reconstitution. In: Argyroudi-Akoyunoglou JH, Senger H (eds) Chloroplast from molecular biology to biotechnology. Nato Advanced Science Institute series, sub-series 3, high technology, vol 46. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 3–10Google Scholar
- LaRoche J, Henry D, Wyman K, Sukenik A, Falkowski P (1994) Cloning and nucleotide-sequence of a cDNA-encoding a major fucoxanthin, chlorophyll a/c-containing protein from the chrysophyte Isochrysis galbana—implications for evolution of the cab gene family. Plant Mol Biol 25:355–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S (2011) MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Bio Evol. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msr121