Detection and counting of immature green citrus fruit based on the Local Binary Patterns (LBP) feature using illumination-normalized images

  • Chenglin Wang
  • Won Suk Lee
  • Xiangjun Zou
  • Daeun Choi
  • Hao Gan
  • Justice Diamond


Early detection and counting of immature green citrus fruit using computer vision can help growers produce a predictive yield map which could be used to adjust management practices during the fruit maturing stages. However, such detecting and counting is difficult because of varying illumination, random occlusion and color similarity with leaves. An immature fruit detection algorithm was developed with the aim of identifying and counting fruit in a citrus grove under varying illumination environments and random occlusions using images acquired by a regular red–green–blue (RGB) color camera. Acquired citrus images included front-lighting and back-lighting illumination conditions. The Retinex image enhancement algorithm and the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform were used for image illumination normalization. Color-based K-means clustering and circular hough transform (CHT) were applied in order to detect potential fruit regions. A Local Binary Patterns feature-based Adaptive Boosting (AdaBoost) classifier was built for removing false positives. A sub-window was used to scan the difference image between the illumination-normalized image and the resulting image from CHT detection in order to detect small areas and partially occluded fruit. An overall accuracy of 85.6% was achieved for the validation set which showed promising potential for the proposed method.


Circular hough transform Immature green citrus Varying illumination Yield mapping 



Local Binary Patterns


Red, green and blue


Circle hough transform


Fast Fourier transform


Adaptive red and blue chromatic map


Fast normalized cross correlation


A compound word from ‘retina’ and ‘cortex’


Support vector machines


The least squares support vector machine


Abbreviations of adaptive boosting



The authors would like to thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China and Science, technology project of Guangdong Province, technology project of Huizhou (Nos. 31571568, 2015A020209111, 2014B040008006), and support from the University of Florida.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Electronic Information EngineeringChina West Normal UniversityNanchongChina
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural & Biological EngineeringUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  3. 3.College of EngineeringSouth China Agricultural UniversityGuangzhouChina
  4. 4.Department of Agricultural & Biological EngineeringPenn State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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