Precision Agriculture

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 193–213 | Cite as

A comparison between mixed support kriging and block cokriging for modelling and combining spatial data with different support

  • A. Castrignanò
  • R. Quarto
  • A. Venezia
  • G. ButtafuocoEmail author


The paper proposes a geostatistical framework to solve the issues of heterogeneous support for spatial estimation. Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) was measured in a field cropped with San Marzano tomato using a multiple frequency electromagnetic profiler with six operating frequencies. Mixed support kriging (MSK) was used to estimate ECa taking into account the change of support. The method includes punctual kriging with the error being the dispersion variance associated with each frequency. The mixed support kriging approach was compared with traditional block cokriging (BCOK) through cross validation. Block cokriging compared to MSK was more computationally intensive to fit the multivariate model of spatial dependence, and in estimating ECa, mixed support kriging outperformed at some frequencies whereas BCOK was more accurate at others. The two approaches were also compared in terms of field-delineation which differed in spatial continuity.


Precision agriculture GEM300 Data fusion Change of support Field delineation 



Financial support for this work comes from the Project “M2Q” PON03PE_00180_1 co-funded by the National Operational Program for Research and Competitiveness (PON R&C) 2007–2013, through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and national resource (Revolving Fund—Cohesion Action Plan MIUR). D. M. MIUR n. 738/05.03.2014. The authors thank the reviewers of this paper and Dr. John Stafford for providing constructive comments, which have contributed to the improvement of the published version.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Research Council of Italy - Institute for Agricultural and Forest Systems in the Mediterranean (ISAFOM)RendeItaly
  2. 2.Earth and Geoenvironmental Sciences DepartmentUniversity of Bari Aldo MoroBariItaly
  3. 3.CREA Research Centre for Vegetable and Ornamental CropsPontecagnanoItaly

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