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Gender inequality in mobility and mode choice in Pakistan


Using the nationally representative dataset of the 2007 Pakistan Time-Use Survey, this paper examines gender differences in daily trip rate, mode choice, travel duration, and purpose of travel, which are previously unreported because of limited data availability. Wide gender mobility gaps are observed in the country, where women are less likely to travel, are half as mobile as men and may rely heavily on walking. The particular social and cultural context of the country, that renders women as private, secluded and family honor, seems influential in shaping their mobility and choice of activities. Demographic factors such as age, household income, and marital status significantly decrease female mobility levels. Hence, these findings call for a gender-based culturally responsive transportation policy in the country.

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  1. 1.

    Number of mobile respondents: male = 17,654, female = 8787, Total = 26,441.

  2. 2.

    Rs. 1 US Dollar = Approximately 100 Pak Rupees, as of December 2014.


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Correspondence to Muhammad Adeel.

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Adeel, M., Yeh, A.G.O. & Zhang, F. Gender inequality in mobility and mode choice in Pakistan. Transportation 44, 1519–1534 (2017).

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  • Travel behavior
  • Gender
  • Pakistan
  • Social context