A time-use investigation of shopping participation in three Canadian cities: is there evidence of social exclusion?
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Increasing awareness and concern about the status of mobility-disadvantaged groups in society has given rise to a wide body of research that focuses on the social exclusion dimension of transportation. To date, much of the empirical work on this topic is mainly spatial in nature despite recent developments that call for the inclusion of time use analyses in social exclusion research. In this paper we attempt to fill this gap by estimating activity and trip durations to determine whether poverty, old age, or being a single parent results in time use patterns indicative of exclusion. Given the importance of shopping and using services for social inclusion objectives, these activities are the focus of this investigation. In terms of methods, use of a multiple equation approach allows for the estimation of the daily duration of shopping activities and trips while simultaneously controlling for daily durations of four broad categories of activities as well as their associated travel times. The results indicate: that being a senior citizen increases travel durations while decreasing shopping activity durations; that coming from a low income household decreases shopping activity durations; and single-parent status does not impact shopping activity durations when holding income and other activity durations constant. These results highlight the feasibility and challenges of time-use and activity analysis in social exclusion research.
KeywordsSocial exclusion Mobility Accessibility Time-use Shopping duration Shopping trip duration Simultaneous equation model
The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support of the Human Resources and Skills Development Canada for this project.
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