, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 375–393 | Cite as

Model, process, technique, and the good thing

  • Antti Talvitie


The paper unpacks the planning process into its component parts: model, process, technique, and goals—the “good thing”. The paper advances the concept that planning, policy-making, and organizational restructuring can be analyzed under the same framework. Each of the four components is described and reductionist examples are presented to clarify the intention and to illustrate the technique that the transport analyst teams employ in their work. The examples cover both successes and failures. They point toward the enormous scientific task ahead for planning to become meaningful and relevant to the problems of today. Finally, in the frame of the willingness to pay, the paper puts forward a case for an institutional framework for a financially autonomous road administration. Similarly organized, administered, and managed entities are relevant also for other transport modes.


Planning Transport policy Benefit–cost Institutional development Road administration 



I wish to thank three anonymous referees for their comments which were very useful sharpening the central ideas of the paper. I also thank Ms. Christine Herbes-Sommers for her first-class editing and for numerous suggestions to improve the paper.


  1. Braybrooke, D., Lindblom, C.: A Strategy of Decision, Policy Evaluation as a Social Process. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. New York (1963)Google Scholar
  2. Coase R.: The Firm, the Market, and the Law. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL (1987)Google Scholar
  3. de Richecour, A., Heggie, I.: Review of African road funds: what works and why? SSATP Working Paper 14, World Bank, Africa Technical Department. Washington, DC (1995)Google Scholar
  4. Dunlop, R.J.: The New Zealand experience in restructuring road administration New Zealand road reform. Transportation 26(1), 87–111 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Freud, S.: The Standard Edition, vol. XII (1911–1914, Formulations on the Two Principles of Mental Functioning); vol. XVIII (1920–1922, Beyond the Pleasure Principle); and vol. XXIII (1937–1939, An Outline of Psychoanalysis). The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psychoanalysis, London (1911, 1920, and 1938)Google Scholar
  6. Freud, S.: Group psychology and the analysis of the ego. Standard Edition 18, 67–134 (1921)Google Scholar
  7. Friedman, M.: The methodology of positive economics. Reprinted from Essays in Positive Economics, pp. 3–43, in Readings in Microeconomics, pp. 23–47. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1952 (1935)Google Scholar
  8. Heggie, I.: Designing major policy reform: lessons form the transport sector. World Bank Discussion Paper 115, Washington, DC (1991)Google Scholar
  9. Heggie, I.: Commercializing Africa’s roads: transforming the role of the public sector. SSATP Working Paper 10, World Bank, Africa Technical Department. Washington, DC (1994)Google Scholar
  10. Heggie, I.: Commercially managed road funds: managing roads like a business, not like a bureaucracy. Transportation 26(1), 87–111 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ieromonachou, P., et al.: Norway’s urban toll rings: evolving towards congestion charging? Transport Policy 13, 367–378 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kandel, E.R.: In Search of Memory. The Emergence of a New Science of Mind. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, London (2006)Google Scholar
  13. Lear, J.: Open Minded. Harvard University Press (Chap. 10, inside and outside the Republic, 1998)Google Scholar
  14. MacMillan, C.: The role of the organizational consultant: a model for clinicians. PhD Dissertation, Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology (1999)Google Scholar
  15. Marsden, G., Bonsall, P.: Performance targets in transport policy. Transport Policy 13(3), 191–203 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McFadden, D.L.: Free Markets and Fettered Consumers. AEA Presidential Address (2006)Google Scholar
  17. North, D.C.: Understanding the process of economic change. Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford (2006)Google Scholar
  18. Oakley, J.: The Metropolitan Planning Organization and Urban Transport Planning. In: Lessons from Urban Transport, Selected Proceedings of a World Bank Seminar (1998)Google Scholar
  19. OECD: Performance Indicators for the Road Sector. Paris, France (1997)Google Scholar
  20. Parkman, K., et al.: Potential for private sector delivery of road maintenance services in developing countries: experience of case studies. Paper at the TRB Annual Meeting, Washington, DC (2001)Google Scholar
  21. Plato, Republic Wordsworth Editions Limited: Translation by John Llewelyn Davies and David James Vaughan (1997)Google Scholar
  22. Robinson, R.: A view of road maintenance economics, policy and management in developing countries. Research Report 145. Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, UK (1988)Google Scholar
  23. Robinson, R.: Presentation in Transport Workshop in Azerbaijan (2003)Google Scholar
  24. Robinson, R., et al.: Road Maintenance Management – Concepts and Systems. Macmillan Press Ltd. (1998)Google Scholar
  25. Roth, G.: Roads in a Market Economy. Ashgate Publishing Company, UK (1996)Google Scholar
  26. Roth, G. (ed.): Street Smart: Competition, Entrepreneurship, and the Future of Roads, Transaction Publishers. New Brunswick (USA) and London (UK) (2006)Google Scholar
  27. Schein, E.: Models of consultation: what do organizations of the 1990s need? Consult. Int. J. 9(4), 261–275 (1990)Google Scholar
  28. Sirvio, E., Talvitie, A.: New approaches to ownership administration and management of low volume roads. Paper in the WCTR Conference, Istanbul (2004)Google Scholar
  29. Spotnitz, H.: Modern Psychoanalysis of the Schizophrenic Patient. Human Sciences Press, New York (1985) (first edition 1969)Google Scholar
  30. Talvitie, A.: Disaggregate travel demand models with disaggregate data, not with aggregate data, and for what. Working Paper No. 7615, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California Berkeley (1976)Google Scholar
  31. Talvitie, A.: A look at the conceptual foundations of the transportation planning process. Paper presented in the Conference on Economic Stagnation, Zandvoort, Netherlands (1982)Google Scholar
  32. Talvitie, A.: International experiences in restructuring the road sector. Transportation Research Record No. 1558, pp. 99–108 (1996)Google Scholar
  33. Talvitie, A.: Things planners believe in, and things they deny. Transportation, 1(24), 1–31 (1997)Google Scholar
  34. Talvitie, A.: Road administration of the future. In: T. Muurunen (ed.) FINNRA 200 Years: Traffic, Needs, and Roads. Perspectives on the Past, Present and Future of Roads in Finland and the Baltic Area (1999)Google Scholar
  35. Talvitie, A.: Road financing and sustainability in EU accession countries. Paper in the road executive course, University of Birmingham (also available in the World Bank web site, 2004)Google Scholar
  36. Talvitie, A.: Experiential incrementalism: on the theory and technique to implement transport plans and policies. Transportation 33, 83–110 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Talvitie, A., Dehghani, Y.: Comparison of observed and coded network travel time and cost measurements. TRB Record 723, pp. 46–51 (1979). See also: Talvitie, A.: Inaccurate or incomplete data as a source of uncertainty in econometric or attitudinal models of travel behavior. In: Brog, W., Mayburg, A.H., Stopher, P.R. (eds.) New Horizons in Travel Behavior. D.C. Heath, Lexington, USAGoogle Scholar
  38. Talvitie, A., Dehghani, Y.: Final Report: Refinement and Application of Disaggregate Travel Demand Models. State University of New York, Buffalo (1981)Google Scholar
  39. Talvitie, A., Kirshner, D.: Specification, transferability and the effect of data outliers in modeling the choice of mode in urban travel. Transportation 7, 311–331 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Talvitie, A., Pearson, T.: Public participation in the Helsinki Crosstown Artery Project. Adv. Transport. 31(2), 185–199. Institute for Transportation, University of Calgary, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  41. Talvitie, A., et al.: An assessment of land use and socioeconomic forecasts in the Baltimore Region. Transportation Research Record (1981)Google Scholar
  42. Tuominen, A., Himanen, V.: Assessing the interaction between transport policy targets and policy implementation – a Finnish case study. Transport Policy (to appear, 2006)Google Scholar
  43. Van der Ven, A.H.: Problem solving, planning and innovation. Part I test of the program planning model. Human Relat. 33(10), 711–740 (1980a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Van der Ven, A.H.: Problem solving, planning and innovation. Part II. Speculations for theory and practice. Human Relat. 33(11), 757–779 (1980b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Van Zuylen, H.J.: Planning: the creation of a new reality. Paper presented at the PTRC Annual Meeting, University of Warwick, UK (1995)Google Scholar
  46. Willson, R.: Assessing communicative rationality as a transportation planning paradigm. Transportation, 28(1), 1–31. Kluwer Academic Publishing, The Netherlands (2001)Google Scholar
  47. Willson, R., et al.: Does discussion enhance rationality. J. Am. Plan. Assoc. 69, 354–367 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Centre for Urban and Regional StudiesHelsinki University of Technology (TKK)EspooFinland
  2. 2.SpringfieldUSA

Personalised recommendations