The Conditional Effect of Network Diversity and Values on Tolerance
- 573 Downloads
While recent literature reports that network diversity generates tolerance, empirical data suggest that in Israel, a highly diverse country, tolerance has been in scarce supply. The well-documented importance of personal value preferences (specifically, openness to change vs. conservation and self-transcendence vs. self-enhancement) in producing tolerant views leads us to hypothesize that values function as boundary conditions mitigating the impact of network diversity upon both political and social tolerance. Building on a representative survey conducted in Israel in 2011, we show that diversity contributes to tolerance more when people are open-minded; when conservatives encounter dissimilar attitudes, they are either less affected or respond with increased intolerance. Secondly, those who highly regard the opinions of others and express an individual predisposition for self-transcendence at the expense of self-enhancement are affected by network diversity to a greater extent. Further, the effect of diversity on tolerance is mediated by the perceived threat from the relevant group.
KeywordsTolerance Values Network diversity Contact Heterogeneity Israel
For invaluable advice, support and inspiration at different stages of the project we are indebted to Michal Shamir. We are also grateful to Michal Shamir for the use of data from the 2011 tolerance survey. We greatly benefited from comments from the journal’s editors and reviewers. Finally, part of the project was written when the first author was a Fellow in the Department of Political Science at Tel Aviv University, and she deeply appreciates their hospitality and the generous financial support of VATAT. All remaining errors are our own.
- Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
- Almond, G., & Verba, S. (1965). The civic culture: Political attitudes and democracy in five nations, an analytic study. London: Little Brown.Google Scholar
- Arian, A., Barnea, S., Ben-Nun, P., Ventura, R., & Shamir, M. (2005). The 2005 Israeli democracy index: A decade after the assassination of Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin. Jerusalem: Israel Democracy Institute.Google Scholar
- Beetham, D. (Ed.). (1994). Defining and measuring democracy. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Berelson, B., Lazarsfeld, P., & McPhee, W. (1954). Voting: A study of opinion formation in a presidential campaign. Chicago: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
- Christakis, N. A., & Fowler, J. H. (2009). Connected: The surprising power of our social networks and how they shape our lives. New York: Little Brown.Google Scholar
- Corbett, M. (1982). Political tolerance in America. London, NY: Longman.Google Scholar
- Djupe, P. A., & Calfano, B. R. (2012). American Muslim investment in civil society: Political discussion, disagreement, and tolerance. Political Research Quarterly, 65, 517–529.Google Scholar
- Heyd, D. (1996). Toleration: An elusive virtue. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Laumann, E. O. (1973). Bonds of pluralism: The form and substance of urban social networks. NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Lazarsfeld, P. F., Berelson, B., & Gaudet, H. (1944). The people’s choice: How the voter makes up his mind in a presidential campaign. NY: Columbia.Google Scholar
- Lupton, R. N., Singh S. P., & Thornton, J. R. (2014). The moderating impact of social networks on the relationships among core values, partisanship, and candidate evaluations. Political Psychology. doi: 10.1111/pops.12102.
- Mutz, D. C., & Mondak, J. J. (2006). The Workplace as a context for cross-cutting political discourse. Journal of Politics, 6, 140–155.Google Scholar
- Nie, N., Junn, J., & Stehlik-Barry, K. (1996). Education and democratic citizenship in America. Chicago, Il: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Pattie, C. J., & Johnson, R. J. (2008). It’s good to talk: Talk, disagreement and tolerance. British Journal of Political Science, 48, 677–698.Google Scholar
- Rokeach, M. (1968). Beliefs, attitudes, and values: A theory of organization and change. California: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 1–65). NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Schwartz, S. H., Caprara, G. V., Vecchione, M., et al. (2013). Basic personal values underlie and give coherence to political values: A cross national study in 15 Countries. Political Behavior. doi: 10.1007/s11109-013-9255-z.
- Seligman, C., & Katz, A. (1996). The dynamics of value systems. In C. Seligman, J. M. Olson, & M. Zanna (Eds.), The psychology of values: The Ontario Symposium (Vol. 8). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Sherif, M. (1966). In common predicament: Social psychology of intergroup conflict and Cooperation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
- Sullivan, J., Piereson, J., & Marcus, G. (1982). Political tolerance and American democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
- Sullivan, J., Shamir, M., Walsh, P., & Roberts, N. (1985). Political tolerance in context. CO: Westview.Google Scholar
- Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories: Studies in social psychology. NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Testa, P. F., Hibbing, M. V., & Ritchie, M. (2014). Orientations toward conflict and the conditional effects of political disagreement. The Journal of Politics (forthcoming).Google Scholar
- Verba, S., Schlozman, K., & Brady, H. (1995). Voice and equality: Civic voluntarism in American politics. Harvard: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar