Advertisement

Photonic Network Communications

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 17–28 | Cite as

Analysis of the energy consumption in telecom operator networks

  • Christoph Lange
  • Dirk Kosiankowski
  • Dirk von Hugo
  • Andreas Gladisch
Article

Abstract

The operation of large-scale telecommunication networks requires energy in different forms. Besides fossil fuels, district heating, and fuels to operate a vehicle fleet, the major energy demand for telecom operator networks is that of electricity. Electricity is needed to power the telecom network itself, the data center equipment, and to supply power to the equipment in offices and workspaces—where the predominant electricity share is consumed by the classic telecom operator network. A large share of this telecom network electricity is currently consumed by legacy network parts inherited from the telephone network era, followed by mobile and fixed access networks with a multitude of distributed active elements for achieving countrywide coverage. Aggregation, core, and optical transport networks only consume modest shares of the overall telecommunication network electricity. The network equipment is accommodated in different classes of network production sites ranging from large indoor central offices to small outdoor sites. The higher their number is, the smaller the respective sites are. Smaller sites essentially provide coverage over large geographical areas and consume only small amounts of electricity per site; however, when combined, their share in total network electricity becomes major. Networking trends are driven by changing user and usage demands and the need to improve the network production efficiency: An example of the former in the wired network is the installation of smaller outdoor network sites to satisfy the increasing user demand for higher bit rate in a value-oriented access network rollout. A prominent example for the latter is the network platform consolidation in the transition toward all-IP networks. Results show that the multitude of small active access network sites for hybrid copper–fiber access systems require increasing amounts of energy for increasing access bit rates—which changes when using the latest copper access technologies or pure fiber-based passive optical access networks. Network platform consolidation improves the network energy efficiency by switching off legacy network platforms and enabling improved degrees of load-adaptive operation.

Keywords

Telecommunication network  Energy consumption Electricity consumption  Fixed network Mobile radio network Legacy network Broadband access network 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The work leading to this article was supported in parts by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy via the projects DESI (Durchgängig Energiesensible IKT-Produktion, Pervasively Energy-Efficient ICT Production—http://www.desi-it2green.de/) and ComGreen (Communicate Green—http://www.communicate-green.de/) of the IT2Green programme (http://www.it2green.de/en/). Furthermore, the authors wish to thank Andreas Betker and Jörg Preuschaft of Telekom Innovation Laboratories, Berlin, Germany, for very valuable and helpful discussions.

References

  1. 1.
    Lange, C., Kosiankowski, D., von Hugo, D., Gladisch, A.: Analysis of Energy Consumption in Carrier Networks. In: 18th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Stockholm, Sweden, May 19–22, 2014, paper S5_1, pp. 96–101Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Deutsche Telekom: We Take Responsibility. Corporate Responsibility Report. http://www.cr-report.telekom.com/site14/ (2013). Accessed 26 May 2014
  3. 3.
    Electricity Consumption of Selected Countries Worldwide (in German). http://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/151356/umfrage/stromverbrauch-ausgewaehlter-laender-weltweit/ (2013). Accessed 26 May 2014
  4. 4.
    Deutsche Bahn: Sustainability Report. http://www.deutschebahn.com/file/4707752/data/sustainability_report_2012.pdf (2013). Accessed 12 June 2014
  5. 5.
    Lange, C., Kosiankowski, D., Betker, A., Simon, H., Bayer, N., von Hugo, D., Lehmann, H., Gladisch, A.: Energy efficiency of load-adaptively operated telecommunication networks. IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 571–590 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lange, C., Kosiankowski, D., Gladisch, A.: Realistic Energy-Saving Potential of Load-Adaptive Operation in Conventional and Platform-Consolidated Operator Networks. In: Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), London, UK, Sep. 22–26, 2013, paper Tu.3.E.1Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dimatteo, S., Hui, P., Han, B., Li, V.: Cellular traffic offloading through WiFi networks. In: Proc. IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 17–22, 2011Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shumate, P.W.: Fiber-to-the-home: 1977–2007. IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1093–1103 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Keiser, G.: FTTX concepts and applications. Wiley, Hoboken (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Timmers, M., Guenach, M., Nuzman, C., Maes, J.: G.fast: Evolving the copper access network. IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(8), 74–79 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    European Commission, Joint Research Center: Code of Conduct on Energy Consumption of Broadband Equipment, Version 5.0. http://iet.jrc.ec.europa.eu/energyefficiency/sites/energyefficiency/files/files/documents/ICT_CoC/cocv5-broadband_final.pdf (2013). Accessed 17 June 2014
  12. 12.
    Lange, C., Kosiankowski, D., Gladisch, A.: Effect of Load-Proportional Systems on the Energy Efficiency of Fixed Telecom Operator Networks. In: Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Cannes, France, Sep. 21–25, 2014, paper Th.1.2.5Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christoph Lange
    • 1
  • Dirk Kosiankowski
    • 1
  • Dirk von Hugo
    • 2
  • Andreas Gladisch
    • 1
  1. 1.Telekom Innovation LaboratoriesDeutsche Telekom AGBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Telekom Innovation LaboratoriesDeutsche Telekom AGDarmstadtGermany

Personalised recommendations