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Photonic Network Communications

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 33–39 | Cite as

Hybrid fiber-to-the-x and free space optics for high bandwidth access networks

  • S. B. Ahmad Anas
  • F. H. Hamat
  • S. Hitam
  • R. K. Z. Sahbudin
Article

Abstract

The authors demonstrate an implementation of hybrid fiber-to-the-x (FTTx) and free space optical (FSO) technologies as another alternative solution to bring light-speed performance to the residential users. A simulation experiment was performed with a 20 km single-mode fiber spanning from the Central Office to 1:32 splitter, before the signal propagated through the air to FSO receivers which were individually equipped with an Optical Network Unit (ONU). A downstream performance of the video signal transmitted at 1550 nm wavelength with a bit rate of 1 Gbps was studied under different weather conditions. The results show that for an acceptable bit error rate of 10−9, 32 ONUs are supportable at a combined FSO: FTTx distance ratio of 20:4.8, 20:2, and 20:1.4 km during clear weather, average and heavy rain, respectively.

Keywords

Access networks Fiber-to-the-x Free Space Optics Hybrid technology 

Abbreviations

FTTx

Fiber-to-the-x

FSO

Free space optical

OLT

Optical line terminal

SMF

Single-mode fiber

ONU

Optical network unit

PON

Passive optical networks

GPON

Gigabit PON

EPON

Ethernet PON

WiFi

Wireless fidelity

WiMAX

Worldwide interoperability for microwave access

LOS

Line-of-sight

CO

Central office

P2MP

Point-to-multipoint

TDM

Time division multiplexing

DFB

Distributed feedback

FCC

Federal communications commission

NRZ

Non-return-to-zero

PRBS

Pseudorandom bit sequence

MZM

Mach Zehnder modulator

EDFA

Erbium-doped fiber amplifier

ITU-T

International telecommunication union—telecommunication

ITU-R

International telecommunication union—radiocommunication

APD

Avalanche photodiode

BER

Bit error rate

ROP

Received optical power

SNR

Signal-to-noise ratio

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. B. Ahmad Anas
    • 1
  • F. H. Hamat
    • 1
  • S. Hitam
    • 1
  • R. K. Z. Sahbudin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer and Communication Systems Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversiti Putra Malaysia, UPM SerdangSelangorMalaysia

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