Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics

, Volume 55, Issue 1–2, pp 114–123 | Cite as

Iron Age: Origin and Evolution of Ferrous Metallurgy

  • G. G. Gnesin

A historical overview of the origin and evolution of ferrous metallurgy, fundamentals of producing iron and its alloys, is presented. The paper shows the sequence of discoveries behind the technology of iron and steel, the effect of carbon on the formation of cast iron and steel, as well as the progress in foundry and thermomechanical treatment of iron alloys, which promoted the development of large-scale production that laid the foundation for industrial development and material basis of civilization.


iron cast iron steel casting forging forge welding tempering annealing bulat steel Iron Age cutting tool cold steel arms coat of mail light weapons guns Siemens–Martin process basic oxygen furnace process blast-furnace process 


  1. 1.
    H. Carter and A. C. Mace, The Tomb of Tutankhamen [Russian translation], Izd. Vost. Lit., Moscow (1959), p, 483.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. I. Chernousov, V. M. Mapel’man, and O. V. Golubev, Iron Metallurgy in the History of Civilization [in Russian], Izd. Mosk. Inst. Stali Splavov, Moscow (2005), p. 403.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    N. N. Gribov, Iron Age in Archeology [in Russian], Izd. Nizhegorodsk. Gos. Univ., Nizhny Novgorod (2009), p. 111.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    O. R. Gurney, The Hittites, Penguin, Harmondsworth (1972).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. S. Upadhyaya, Metal Science: Past, Present and Future, Trans Tech Publ Ltd., Durnten–Zurich (2013), p. 251.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    U. Karman, A History of Firearms. From Earliest Times to 1914 [Russian translation], Tsentrpoligraf, Moscow (2006), p. 304.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. Blair, European Armor [Russian translation], Tsentrpoligraf, Moscow (2008), p. 280.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    V. F. Knyazev and A. M. Nemenov, Cokeless Iron Metallurgy [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1972), p. 272.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. I. Bekh, V. A. Vasil’ev, É. Ch. Gini, and A. M. Petrichenko, World of Art Casting [in Russian], Izd. Metallurg, Moscow (1997), p. 272.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. D. Gotlib, Blast Furnace Process [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1966), p. 504.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Srinivasan and S. Ranganathan, India`s Legendary Wootz Steel, Universities Press, Bangalor (2014), p. 149.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yu. G. Gurevich, Bulat Steel. Structure, Properties, and Manufacturing Secrets [in Russian], Izd. Kurgan. Gos. Univ., Kurgan (2006), p. 160.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    N. T. Belyaev, Bulat Steels [in Russian], Saint Petersburg (1906), p. 53.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    V. Yugov, Anosov’s Bulat [in Russian], Linor, Moscow (2010), p. 232.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    V. I. Baptizmanskii, Theory of Basic Oxygen Furnace Process [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1975), p. 375.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    E. Houdermont, Handbook on Special Steels [in German], Springer-Verlag, Berlin–Göttingen–Heidelberg (1956).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. Ya. Povolotskii, V. E. Roshchin, and M. A. Ryss, Electrometallurgy of Steel and Ferroalloys [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1974), p. 551.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    B. V. Linchevskii, Vacuum Metallurgy of Steel and Alloys [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1970), p. 258.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    B. A. Movchan, A. L. Tikhonovskii, and Yu. A. Kurapov, Electron Beam Melting and Refining of Metals and Alloys [in Russian], Naukova Dumka, Kyiv (1972), p. 273.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    I. I. Novikov, Theory of Metal Heat Treatment [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1986), p. 480.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. V. Perel’muter, Essays on the History of Metal Structures [in Russian], Izd. ACB, Moscow (2012), p. 191.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. P. Gulyaev, Physical Metallurgy [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1986), p. 543.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    I. N. Frantsevich, “Background of powder metallurgy,” in: Powder Metallurgy in the USSR [in Russian], Nauka, Moscow (1986), pp. 10–22.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials ScienceNational Academy of Sciences of UkraineKievUkraine

Personalised recommendations