Molecular Landscape of Helopeltis theivora Induced Transcriptome and Defense Gene Expression in Tea
Tea is the second most consumed beverage worldwide whose cultivation is greatly challenged by a large variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. Among the biotic factors, the hemipteran pest Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse is particularly devastating in Asia and Africa, rendering the crop unsuitable for any downstream processing. The present study, for the first time, endeavors to dissect the molecular events associated with such infestations and identify potential molecular protagonists influencing Helopeltis tolerance in Assam tea. We analyzed the transcriptome of infested tea plants having contrasting responses to pest feeding by suppression subtractive hybridization and quantified the relative abundances of defense-associated transcripts. We analyzed 445 unigenes derived from 1558 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from three different infestation conditions. Our study indicate that defense responses to the pest greatly vary in temporal and cultivar-specific manner characterized by an exclusive upregulation of specific defense-associated genes in the tolerant cultivar. Moreover, it was observed that transcripts related to flavonoid biosynthesis, purine metabolism, formate metabolism, jasmonic acid biosynthesis and signaling, and cell wall metabolism are uniquely enriched in the same. Interestingly, those involved in caffeine biosynthesis remain comparatively low and unaltered. We report higher trichome densities on the abaxial surface of the leaf in tolerant cultivar while puncture causes their tender reorientation. SEM of the insect mouthparts reveal higher concentrations of sensilla-like structures near the distal end and tip of the proboscis which are known to act as chemoreceptors in other hemipterans. Our investigation provides the first ever glimpse of Helopeltis-induced defense gene network and provides the much needed platform for improvement of the crop for better Helopeltis tolerance through breeding and transgenic approaches. On a wider perspective, the study will augment our understanding of molecular responses to phloem herbivory in plants.
KeywordsSap sucking herbivores Suppression subtraction hybridization Gene ontology Scanning electron microscopy Trichome qPCR
The authors thank A. Rahman for helping with the infestation experiment and R. Bordoloi for help with the cultivars. We are grateful to Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India for their generous funding for the research.
EST data was deposited to NCBI database having accession number HS398504- HS399976.
- Annual scientific report (TRA). 2008–09 p 6.Google Scholar
- Ashburner M, Ball CA, Blake JA, Botstein D, Butler H, Cherry JM, Davis AP, Dolinski K, Dwight SS, Eppig JT, Harris MA, Hill DP, Issel-Tarver L, Kasarskis A, Lewis S, Matese JC, Richardson JE, Ringwald M, Rubin GM, Sherlock G (2000) Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology. The gene ontology consortium. Nat Genet 25:25–29Google Scholar
- Barbora BC, Singh K (1994) All about Helopeltis theivora: a serious pest of tea. Two Bud 41(2):19–21Google Scholar
- Barua DN (1994) Science and practice in tea culture. Tea Res Assoc, Calcutta, 509 ppGoogle Scholar
- Bora S, Sarmah M, Bahamans A, Gurusubramanian G (2007) Relative toxicity of pyrethroid and non-pyrethroid insecticides against male and female tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis theivora waterhouse (Darjeeling strain). J Dent Res 31(1):37–41Google Scholar
- Conesa A, Gotz S, Garcia-Gomez JM, Terol J, Talon M, Robles M (2005) Blast2GO: a universal tool for annotation, visualization and analysis in functional genomics research. Bioinformatics 21:3674–3676Google Scholar
- Deka A, Deka PC, Mondal TK (2006) Tea. In: Parthasarathy VA, Chattopadhyay PK, Bose TK (eds) Plantation crops, vol 1. Naya Udyog, Kolkata, pp 1–147, xi, 519 pGoogle Scholar
- Ebbole DJ, Jin Y, Thon M, Pan H, Bhattarai E, Thomas T, Dean R (2004) Gene discovery and gene expression in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea: analysis of expressed sequence tags. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 17(12):1337–1347Google Scholar
- Gupta S, Bharalee R, Bhorali P, Das SK, Bhagawati P, Bandyopadhyay T, Gohain B, Agarwal N, Ahmed P, Borchetia S, Kalita MC, Handique AK, Das S (2013) Molecular analysis of drought tolerance in tea by cDNA-AFLP based transcript profiling. Mol Biotechnol 53(3):237–248. doi: 10.1007/s12033-012-9517-8 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jain NK (1999) (ed) Global Advances in Tea Science. Aravali Books, New Delhi, 882 ppGoogle Scholar
- Keon J, Antoniw J, Rudd J, Skinner W, Hargreaves J, Hammond-Kosack K (2005) Analysis of expressed sequence tags from the wheat leaf blotch pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph Septoria tritici). Fungal Genet Biol 42:376–389Google Scholar
- Mukhopadhyay A, Roy S (2013) Development of tolerant traits in tea mosquito bug (Helopeltis Theivora Waterhouse) (Hemiptera: Miridae) under insecticide stress. Int J Bioresour Stress Manag 4(3):418Google Scholar
- Roy S, Mukhopadhyay A, Gurusubramanian G (2009) The synergists action of piperonyl butoxide on toxicity of certain insecticides applied against Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse (Heteroptera: Miridae) in the Dooars tea plantations of North Bengal India. J Plant Prot Res 49(2):226–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sabhapondit S, Bhattacharyya P, Bhuyan LP, Hazarika M, Goswami BC (2014) Optimisation of withered leaf moisture during the manufacture of black tea based upon theaflavins fractions. Int J Food Sci Technol 49:205–209Google Scholar
- Sarker M, Mukhopadhyay A (2006) Studies on some enzymes related to insecticide esistance in Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse (Insecta: Heteroptera: Miridae) from Darjeeling foothills and plains. J Plant Crops 34:423–428Google Scholar
- Sundararaju D, Sundarababu PC (1999) Helopeltis spp. (Heteroptera: Miridae) and their management in plantation and horticultural crops of India. J Plant Crops 27:155–174Google Scholar
- Van Damme EJM (2008) Plant lectins as part of the plant defense system against insects. In : Schaller A (ed) Induced plant resistance to herbivory, Springer, Netherlands, pp 285-307 Google Scholar
- Wilson KC, Clifford MN (eds) (1992a) Tea: Cultivation to Consumption. Chapman & Hall, London, 769 pp.Google Scholar
- Zhou JM, Trifa Y, Silva H, Pontier D, Lam E, Shah J, Klessig DF (2000) NPR1differentially interacts with members of the TGA/OBF family of transcription factors that bind an element of the PR-1 gene required for induction by salicylic acid. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 13:191–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar