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Plant and Soil

, Volume 424, Issue 1–2, pp 607–617 | Cite as

Effect of electrode configurations on phytoremediation efficiency and environmental risk

  • Jie Luo
  • Lin Ye
  • Shihua Qi
  • Jian Wu
  • X. W. Sophie Gu
Regular Article

Abstract

Aims

Some experiments were designed to evaluate the influences of field directions and voltages on the remediation efficiency and environmental risk during the chelator assisted phytoremediation processes.

Methods

Biomass production, metal accumulation and transportation and leachate interception under different electrode arrangements with varied voltages were compared.

Results

Biomass yield increased from 2.71 kg in control to 3.45 kg in low voltage (2 V) treatments and then decreased to 3.12 and 2.66 kg in moderate (4 V) and high (10 V) voltage treatments, respectively. Metal uptake and transportation of the species were affected by field directions and voltages. Electric fields can strengthen the promoting effect of chelator for phytoremediation and alleviate even eliminate the environmental risk caused by chemical amendment, as manifested by the significantly decreased volume of leachate ranging from 56 mL in vertical field treatment with high voltage to 401 mL in horizontal field treatment with low voltage. Voltages had greater impact on the metal decontamination capacity of the species relative to electric field directions, but the prevention of leaching depended more on electrode arrangements than voltages.

Conclusions

Vertical electric field with moderate voltage achieved the optimal effect on metal decontamination and leachate interception in the phytoremediation processes.

Keywords

Phytoremediation Electric field direction Voltage Leaching risk Eucalyptus globulus 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province of China (Project No. 2015CFB603), Science & Technology Project of Education Department, Hubei Province, China, and State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, GIGCAS for the financial support of this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jie Luo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lin Ye
    • 1
  • Shihua Qi
    • 2
  • Jian Wu
    • 2
  • X. W. Sophie Gu
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Resources and EnvironmentYangtze UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.China University of GeosciencesWuhanChina
  3. 3.The University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

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