Source of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo and Zn in grains of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) grown in nutrient solution: root uptake or remobilization from vegetative organs?
This study investigated the possible source organs delivering several trace elements to seeds (root uptake versus net remobilization), by studying changes in biomass and element contents in the plant organs.
Sunflowers were grown in a greenhouse using a nutrient solution enriched with Cd. Four samplings were performed from the early flowering to the seeds physiological maturity.
The low grain Ca indicated that phloem was likely the main route for transporting the elements to seeds. Excluding roots, the mass balance of the elements indicated the following contribution of the net remobilization to the total quantities in seeds at maturity: Mg = 50%, Cd = 14%, Cu = 35%, Fe = 29%, Mn = 19%, Zn = 12%. Source organs were mainly the receptacle and the stem. No significant net remobilization was observed for Ca, K and Mo.
The amount of trace elements accumulated in vegetative parts can be redistributed to seeds in an extent that depended on the element. Due to the important contribution of root uptake to the content in seeds at maturity, the availability of elements in soil during the reproductive stages is an important point to consider.
KeywordsNet remobilization Partitioning Root uptake Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Trace elements
This work has been financially supported by the French National Research Agency through the SIM-TRACES (ANR-11-CESA-0008) Project.
O. Liñero is grateful to the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) and the University of Bordeaux for her predoctoral fellowship, within the framework of the Cross-Border Euroregional Campus of International Excellence IdEx Bordeaux – Euskampus.
The authors are grateful to L. Augusto for his helpful contribution as internal reviewer of this manuscript.
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