Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 424, Issue 1–2, pp 335–349 | Cite as

Bacterial rather than fungal community composition is associated with microbial activities and nutrient-use efficiencies in a paddy soil with short-term organic amendments

  • Junjie Guo
  • Wenbo Liu
  • Chen Zhu
  • Gongwen Luo
  • Yali Kong
  • Ning Ling
  • Min Wang
  • Jingyu Dai
  • Qirong Shen
  • Shiwei Guo
Regular Article

Abstract

Background and aims

Considering the global demands in sustaining agriculture, use of organic amendments is gradually increasing. An improved understanding of the biological process is essential to evaluate the performance of organic amendments on agro-ecosystem.

Methods

Soils subjected to different fertilization regimes were collected from a field experiment. Microbial community compositions are assessed with 16S and ITS rRNA gene sequencing and subsequent bioinformatics analysis. Microbial functions are characterized with the geometric mean of the assayed enzyme activities (GMea) and the microbial carbon-use efficiency:nitrogen-use efficiency ratio (CUE:NUE).

Results

Compared with the chemically fertilized soil, the GMea significantly increased in organically amended soils. In contrast, the CUE:NUE was highest in chemically treated soil. These changes of microbial functional indicators were associated with shifts in the bacterial and not the fungal community composition, despite the fact that both the bacterial and fungal community compositions were significantly affected by the fertilization regimes. The abundances of specific soil bacterial taxa, especially the genera Luteimonas and Gemmatimona, were enriched by organic amendments. Soil organic carbon emerged as the major determinant of the bacterial community composition.

Conclusions

Soil microbial activities and nutrient-use efficiencies were dramatically changed along with the alteration of bacterial community composition. Relatively greater abundance of Luteimonas and Gemmatimona taxa in soils might be useful indicators for soil amelioration. Our research could be helpful to provide better strategies for the maintenance of soil fertility.

Keywords

Organic amendment Bacterial community Fungal community Microbial activity Microbial nutrient-use efficiencies 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2015CB150500), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFD0200206) and the Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest (20150312205).

Supplementary material

11104_2017_3547_MOESM1_ESM.docx (26 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 25 kb)

References

  1. Abarenkov K, Henrik Nilsson R, Larsson KH, Alexander IJ, Eberhardt U, Erland S, Høiland K, Kjøller R, Larsson E, Pennanen T (2010) The UNITE database for molecular identification of fungi–recent updates and future perspectives. New Phytol 186:281–285CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ai C, Liang GQ, Sun JW, Wang XB, Zhou W (2012) Responses of extracellular enzyme activities and microbial community in both the rhizosphere and bulk soil to long-term fertilization practices in a fluvo-aquic soil. Geoderma 173:330–338.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2011.07.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alden L, Demoling F, Baath E (2001) Rapid method of determining factors limiting bacterial growth in soil. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:1830–1838.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.67.4.1830-1838.2001 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Banerjee S, Kirkby CA, Schmutter D, Bissett A, Kirkegaard JA, Richardson AE (2016) Network analysis reveals functional redundancy and keystone taxa amongst bacterial and fungal communities during organic matter decomposition in an arable soil. Soil Biol Biochem 97:188–198.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2016.03.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benitez E, Sainz H, Nogales R (2005) Hydrolytic enzyme activities of extracted humic substances during the vermicomposting of a lignocellulosic olive waste. Bioresour Technol 96:785–790.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2004.08.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Blackwood CB, Waldrop MP, Zak DR, Sinsabaugh RL (2007) Molecular analysis of fungal communities and laccase genes in decomposing litter reveals differences among forest types but no impact of nitrogen deposition. Environ Microbiol 9:1306–1316.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01250.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowles TM, Acosta-Martínez V, Calderón F, Jackson LE (2014) Soil enzyme activities, microbial communities, and carbon and nitrogen availability in organic agroecosystems across an intensively-managed agricultural landscape. Soil Biol Biochem 68:252–262.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brookes PC, Landman A, Pruden G, Jenkinson DS (1985) Chloroform fumigation and the release of soil-nitrogen - a rapid direct extraction method to measure microbial biomass nitrogen in soil. Soil Biol Biochem 17:837–842.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(85)90144-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Caporaso JG, Kuczynski J, Stombaugh J, Bittinger K, Bushman FD, Costello EK, Fierer N, Pena AG, Goodrich JK, Gordon JI, Huttley GA, Kelley ST, Knights D, Koenig JE, Ley RE, Lozupone CA, McDonald D, Muegge BD, Pirrung M, Reeder J, Sevinsky JR, Turnbaugh PJ, Walters WA, Widmann J, Yatsunenko T, Zaneveld J, Knight R (2010) QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data. Nat Methods 7:335–336.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.f.303 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Cederlund H, Wessen E, Enwall K, Jones CM, Juhanson J, Pell M, Philippot L, Hallin S (2014) Soil carbon quality and nitrogen fertilization structure bacterial communities with predictable responses of major bacterial phyla. Appl Soil Ecol 84:62–68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2014.06.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen C, Zhang J, Lu M, Qin C, Chen Y, Yang L, Huang Q, Wang J, Shen Z, Shen Q (2016) Microbial communities of an arable soil treated for 8 years with organic and inorganic fertilizers. Biol Fertil Soils 52:455–467.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-016-1089-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Curlevski NJA, Xu Z, Anderson IC, Cairney JWG (2010) Converting Australian tropical rainforest to native Araucariaceae plantations alters soil fungal communities. Soil Biol Biochem 42:14–20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.08.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DeForest JL (2009) The influence of time, storage temperature, and substrate age on potential soil enzyme activity in acidic forest soils using MUB-linked substrates and L-DOPA. Soil Biol Biochem 41:1180–1186.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.02.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Demoling F, Figueroa D, Baath E (2007) Comparison of factors limiting bacterial growth in different soils. Soil Biol Biochem 39:2485–2495.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2007.05.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Edgar RC (2013) UPARSE: highly accurate OTU sequences from microbial amplicon reads. Nat Methods 10:996–998.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.2604 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Fan F, Yin C, Tang Y, Li Z, Song A, Wakelin SA, Zou J, Liang Y (2014) Probing potential microbial coupling of carbon and nitrogen cycling during decomposition of maize residue by 13C-DNA-SIP. Soil Biol Biochem 70:12–21.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fierer N, Bradford MA, Jackson RB (2007) Toward an ecological classification of soil bacteria. Ecology 88:1354–1364CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Fierer N, Lauber CL, Ramirez KS, Zaneveld J, Bradford MA, Knight R (2012) Comparative metagenomic, phylogenetic and physiological analyses of soil microbial communities across nitrogen gradients. ISME J 6:1007–1017.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2011.159 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Fontaine S, Bardoux G, Abbadie L, Mariotti A (2004) Carbon input to soil may decrease soil carbon content. Ecol Lett 7:314–320.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00579.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Francioli D, Schulz E, Lentendu G, Wubet T, Buscot F, Reitz T (2016) Mineral vs. organic amendments: microbial community structure, activity and abundance of agriculturally relevant microbes are driven by long-term fertilization strategies. Front Microbiol 7:1446.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01446 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. García-Ruiz R, Ochoa V, Hinojosa MB, Carreira JA (2008) Suitability of enzyme activities for the monitoring of soil quality improvement in organic agricultural systems. Soil Biol Biochem 40:2137–2145.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.03.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gardes M, Bruns TD (1993) ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes--application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Mol Ecol 2:113–118.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.1993.tb00005.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Johnston AE, Poulton PR, Coleman K (2009) Soil organic matter: its importance in sustainable agriculture and carbon dioxide fluxes. Adv Agron 101:1–57.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(08)00801-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kallenbach C, Grandy AS (2011) Controls over soil microbial biomass responses to carbon amendments in agricultural systems: a meta-analysis. Agric Ecosyst Environ 144:241–252.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2011.08.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kamolmanit B, Vityakon P, Kaewpradit W, Cadisch G, Rasche F (2013) Soil fungal communities and enzyme activities in a sandy, highly weathered tropical soil treated with biochemically contrasting organic inputs. Biol Fertil Soils 49:905–917.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-013-0785-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Krepski ST, Hanson TE, Chan CS (2012) Isolation and characterization of a novel biomineral stalk-forming iron-oxidizing bacterium from a circumneutral groundwater seep. Environ Microbiol 14:1671–1680.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02652.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Kuzyakov Y (2010) Priming effects: interactions between living and dead organic matter. Soil Biol Biochem 42:1363–1371.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.04.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lal R (2008) Soils and sustainable agriculture. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 28:57–64.  https://doi.org/10.1051/agro:2007025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lane D (1991) 16S/23S rRNA sequencing. In: Stackebrandt E, Goodfellow M (eds) Nucleic acid techniques in bacterial systematicsGoogle Scholar
  30. Lazcano C, Gómez-Brandón M, Revilla P, Domínguez J (2012) Short-term effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil microbial community structure and function. Biol Fertil Soils 49:723–733.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-012-0761-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Letunic I, Bork P (2016) Interactive tree of life (iTOL) v3: an online tool for the display and annotation of phylogenetic and other trees. Nucleic Acids Res 44:W242–W245.  https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkw290 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Li F, Chen L, Zhang J, Yin J, Huang S (2017) Bacterial community structure after long-term organic and inorganic fertilization reveals important associations between soil nutrients and specific taxa involved in nutrient transformations. Front Microbiol 8:187.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00187 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu J, Sui Y, Yu Z, Shi Y, Chu H, Jin J, Liu X, Wang G (2014) High throughput sequencing analysis of biogeographical distribution of bacterial communities in the black soils of northeast China. Soil Biol Biochem 70:113–122.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.12.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Loeppmann S, Blagodatskaya E, Pausch J, Kuzyakov Y (2016) Substrate quality affects kinetics and catalytic efficiency of exo-enzymes in rhizosphere and detritusphere. Soil Biol Biochem 92:111–118.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2015.09.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Love MI, Huber W, Anders S (2014) Moderated estimation of fold change and dispersion for RNA-seq data with DESeq2. Genome Biol 15:550.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-014-0550-8 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Maillard E, Angers DA (2014) Animal manure application and soil organic carbon stocks: a meta-analysis. Glob Chang Biol 20:666–679.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12438 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Manzoni S, Taylor P, Richter A, Porporato A, Agren GI (2012) Environmental and stoichiometric controls on microbial carbon-use efficiency in soils. New Phytol 196:79–91.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04225.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Mooshammer M, Wanek W, Hammerle I, Fuchslueger L, Hofhansl F, Knoltsch A, Schnecker J, Takriti M, Watzka M, Wild B, Keiblinger KM, Zechmeister-Boltenstern S, Richter A (2014) Adjustment of microbial nitrogen use efficiency to carbon:nitrogen imbalances regulates soil nitrogen cycling. Nat Commun 5:3694.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms4694 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Muyzer G, de Waal EC, Uitterlinden AG (1993) Profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:695–700PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Nannipieri P, Ascher J, Ceccherini M, Landi L, Pietramellara G, Renella G (2003) Microbial diversity and soil functions. Eur J Soil Sci 54:655–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Philippot L, Andersson SG, Battin TJ, Prosser JI, Schimel JP, Whitman WB, Hallin S (2010) The ecological coherence of high bacterial taxonomic ranks. Nat Rev Microbiol 8:523–529.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2367 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Romanenko LA, Tanaka N, Svetashev VI, Kurilenko VV, Mikhailov VV (2012) Luteimonas vadosa sp. nov., isolated from seashore sediment. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:1261–1266.  https://doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.043273-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Saiya-Cork KR, Sinsabaugh RL, Zak DR (2002) The effects of long term nitrogen deposition on extracellular enzyme activity in an Acer saccharum forest soil. Soil Biol Biochem 34:1309–1315.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(02)00074-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shanks OC, Kelty CA, Archibeque S, Jenkins M, Newton RJ, McLellan SL, Huse SM, Sogin ML (2011) Community structures of fecal bacteria in cattle from different animal feeding operations. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:2992–3001.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02988-10 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Shannon P, Markiel A, Ozier O, Baliga NS, Wang JT, Ramage D, Amin N, Schwikowski B, Ideker T (2003) Cytoscape: a software environment for integrated models of biomolecular interaction networks. Genome Res 13:2498–2504.  https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.1239303 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Smith J, Paul E (1990) The significance of soil microbial biomass estimationsGoogle Scholar
  47. Soman C, Li D, Wander MM, Kent AD (2016) Long-term fertilizer and crop-rotation treatments differentially affect soil bacterial community structure. Plant Soil 413:145–159.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-016-3083-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Strickland MS, Rousk J (2010) Considering fungal:bacterial dominance in soils – methods, controls, and ecosystem implications. Soil Biol Biochem 42:1385–1395.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.05.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sul WJ, Asuming-Brempong S, Wang Q, Tourlousse DM, Penton CR, Deng Y, Rodrigues JLM, Adiku SGK, Jones JW, Zhou JZ, Cole JR, Tiedje JM (2013) Tropical agricultural land management influences on soil microbial communities through its effect on soil organic carbon. Soil Biol Biochem 65:33–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.05.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sun RB, Zhang XX, Guo XS, Wang DZ, Chu HY (2015) Bacterial diversity in soils subjected to long-term chemical fertilization can be more stably maintained with the addition of livestock manure than wheat straw. Soil Biol Biochem 88:9–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2015.05.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sun R, Dsouza M, Gilbert JA, Guo X, Wang D, Guo Z, Ni Y, Chu H (2016) Fungal community composition in soils subjected to long-term chemical fertilization is most influenced by the type of organic matter. Environ Microbiol 18:5137–5150.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.13512 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Swift MJ, Heal OW, Anderson JM (1979) Decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. Q Rev Biol 83:2772–2774Google Scholar
  53. Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S (2013) MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol 30:2725–2729.  https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst197 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Tian W, Wang L, Li Y, Zhuang KM, Li G, Zhang JB, Xiao XJ, Xi YG (2015) Responses of microbial activity, abundance, and community in wheat soil after three years of heavy fertilization with manure-based compost and inorganic nitrogen. Agric Ecosyst Environ 213:219–227.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2015.08.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tu C, Ristaino JB, Hu SJ (2006) Soil microbial biomass and activity in organic tomato farming systems: Effects of organic inputs and straw mulching. Soil Biol Biochem 38:247–255.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2005.05.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Vilgalys R, Hester M (1990) Rapid genetic identification and mapping of enzymatically amplified ribosomal DNA from several cryptococcus species. J Bacteriol 172:4238–4246CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Voroney R, Winter J, Beyaert R (1993) Soil microbial biomass C and N. Soil sampling and methods of analysis. 277–286Google Scholar
  58. Wang Q, Garrity GM, Tiedje JM, Cole JR (2007) Naive Bayesian classifier for rapid assignment of rRNA sequences into the new bacterial taxonomy. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:5261–5267CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Wang X, Hong Q, Zhang C-F, Yang H-X, Hu G, Zhu S-J, Zhang Y-K, Liu X-W, Zhang H, Zhao C-R (2015a) Luteimonas soli sp. nov., isolated from farmland soil. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 65:4809–4815.  https://doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.000652 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Wang Y, Ji H, Gao C (2015b) Differential responses of soil bacterial taxa to long-term P, N, and organic manure application. J Soils Sediments 16:1046–1058.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-015-1320-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wei WL, Yan Y, Cao J, Christie P, Zhang FS, Fan MS (2016) Effects of combined application of organic amendments and fertilizers on crop yield and soil organic matter: an integrated analysis of long-term experiments. Agric Ecosyst Environ 225:86–92.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2016.04.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wessén E, Hallin S, Philippot L (2010) Differential responses of bacterial and archaeal groups at high taxonomical ranks to soil management. Soil Biol Biochem 42:1759–1765.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.06.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. PCR Protocols. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  64. WRB IWG (2015) World reference base for soil resources 2014, update 2015 International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports 106Google Scholar
  65. Wu J, Joergensen RG, Pommerening B, Chaussod R, Brookes PC (1990) Measurement of soil microbial biomass C by fumigation extraction - an automated procedure. Soil Biol Biochem 22:1167–1169.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(90)90046-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zak DR, Tilman D, Parmenter RR, Rice CW, Fisher FM, Vose J, Milchunas D, Martin CW (1994) Plant-production and soil-microorganisms in late-successional ecosystems - a continental-scale study. Ecology 75:2333–2347.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1940888 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zak DR, Blackwood CB, Waldrop MP (2006) A molecular dawn for biogeochemistry. Trends Ecol Evol 21:288–295.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2006.04.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Zechmeister-Boltenstern S, Keiblinger KM, Mooshammer M, Peñuelas J, Richter A, Sardans J, Wanek W (2016) The application of ecological stoichiometry to plant–microbial–soil organic matter transformations. Ecol Monogr 85:133–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zhang L, Wang X, Yu M, Qiao Y, Zhang X-H (2015) Genomic analysis of Luteimonas abyssi XH031T: insights into its adaption to the subseafloor environment of South Pacific Gyre and ecological role in biogeochemical cycle. BMC Genomics 16.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-015-2326-2
  70. Zhong Y, Yan W, Shangguan Z (2015) Impact of long-term N additions upon coupling between soil microbial community structure and activity, and nutrient-use efficiencies. Soil Biol Biochem 91:151–159.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2015.08.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zhong WH, Bian BY, Gao N, Min J, Shi WM, Lin XG, Shen WS (2016) Nitrogen fertilization induced changes in ammonia oxidation are attributable mostly to bacteria rather than archaea in greenhouse-based high N input vegetable soil. Soil Biol Biochem 93:150–159.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2015.11.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junjie Guo
    • 1
  • Wenbo Liu
    • 1
  • Chen Zhu
    • 1
  • Gongwen Luo
    • 1
  • Yali Kong
    • 1
  • Ning Ling
    • 1
  • Min Wang
    • 1
  • Jingyu Dai
    • 2
  • Qirong Shen
    • 1
  • Shiwei Guo
    • 1
  1. 1.Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Solid Organic Waste UtilizationNanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.College of Resources and Environmental SciencesNanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations