Plant-soil feedbacks and competitive interactions between invasive Bromus diandrus and native forb species
- 952 Downloads
Background and aims
Feedback between plant and soil microbial communities plays a key role in plant invasions. We examined feedback in native and invasive plants growing in monoculture and mixture, to determine soil microorganisms’ role in Bromus diandrus invasion.
Four native forb species were grown in monoculture and in competition with Bromus and with different microbial inocula. Inoculum consisted of 20 g of soil collected from the rhizosphere of native or invasive plants used to create treatments of (1) whole soil, (2) filtrate containing non-mycorrhizal microbes, and (3) arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spores.
Native species in monoculture experienced neutral to positive feedback with whole soil and filtrate inoculum. Feedback in Bromus grown in monoculture varied in direction and magnitude with different soil microbial fractions. Fine AMF (Glomus tenue) in filtrate inoculum appeared to cause observed positive feedback effect in native and invasive species, even with pathogenic fungi in roots. Feedback in mixture was more positive than in monoculture for some species.
Our study highlights the difficulty of extending feedback results in monoculture to the community level, and the importance of fine AMF, which has received little attention, interacting with pathogens in plant invasion.
KeywordsAbandoned agriculture Coarse arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Fine arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus tenue Oomycetes Plant invasion
This study was supported by grants awarded to E.B. A. and B.E. H. (Riverside County Habitat Conservation Agency, Shipley-Skinner Reserve- Riverside County Endowment). Seed was donated by S&S Seeds (Carpinteria, California) and the Riverside County Habitat Conservation Agency. We thank Michael Allen, Jeff Diez, Jodie Holt, Allen lab members, and anonymous reviewers for valuable comments on the manuscript. We also thank Jeff Diez for statistical advice, and Michael Bell, Justin Valliere, Violet Khin, Amanda Haraksin, and Lora Elicerio for laboratory assistance.
- Johnson NC, Rowland DL, Corkidi L, Allen EB (2008) Characteristics of plant winners and losers during grassland eutrophication – importance of biomass allocation and mycorrhizal function. Ecology 89:2868–2878Google Scholar
- Kormanik PP, McGraw AC (1982). “Quantification of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in plant roots”. In: Schenck NC (ed) Methods and principles of mycorrhizal research. St. Paul, Am Phytopathol Soc pp, 37–45 Google Scholar
- McGonigle TP, Fitter AH (1990) Ecological Specificity of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Associations. Mycol Res 94:120–122Google Scholar
- Minnich RA (2008) California’s fading wildflowers: lost legacies and biological invasions. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
- Nelson JW, Zinn CJ, Strahorn AT, Watson EB, Dunn JE (1919) Soil survey of the Los Angeles area, California. Advanced sheets-field operations of the bureau of soils, 1916. United States Department of Agriculture, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- R Development Core Team (2013). R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R foundation for statistical computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/
- Smith SE, Read D (2008) Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Elsevier Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Sturtz S, Ligges U, Gelman A (2005) R2WinBUGS: a package for running WinBUGS from R. J Stat Softw 12(3):1–16Google Scholar