The fate of phosphorus of ash-rich biochars in a soil-plant system
- 1.4k Downloads
The objectives were to investigate (i) the forms and release pattern of P from an ash-rich biochar-amended sandy soil; (ii) the transformation of biochar P in a soil-plant system.
Several methodologies (a bioassay test, soluble P extractions, a sequential P fractionation and successive P extractions via resin strips) were used to study the bioavailability and transformation of P in a sandy soil fertilised with either conventional P fertilisers [Ca(H2PO4)2 (CaP) and Sechura phosphate rock (SPR)] or biochars produced from cattle manure (MAe) and alum-treated biosolids (BSe) at four temperatures (250, 350, 450, and 550 °C).
Biochar P mainly contributed to increase soil resin-extractable P- and inorganic NaOH-extractable P-fractions, and thus to plant available P. The decrease in P concentrations of those fractions was caused by the uptake of P by plants rather than their transformations into more stable forms. P release rates diminished following the order: CaP > MAe > BSe > SPR, which indicates a decline in P availability from these P sources.
Phosphorus-rich biochar can be used as a slow-release fertiliser. It is necessary to determine available P (either soil or fertiliser tests) in biochars prior to its application to soil, so that dose, frequency and timing of application are correctly established.
KeywordsP fractionation Biochar Bioavailability Transformation
The authors acknowledge T. Maruyama for assistance in soil P tests; Dr J. Hanly provided the manure sample; Dr. P. Bishop helped to set up the pyrolyser; Palmerston North City Council supplied the biosolids; the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry New Zealand (MAF) funded the research; and Massey University funded a fellowship for T.W.
- Chintala R, Schumacher TE, McDonald LM, Clay DE, Malo DD, Papiernik SK, Clay SA, Julson JL (2013) Phosphorus sorption and availability from biochars and soil/biochar mixtures. CLEAN. Accepted Article, doi: 10.1002/clen.201300089
- De Luca TH, MacKenzie MD, Gundale MJ (2009) Biochar effects on soil nutrient transformations. In: Lehmann J, Joseph S (eds) Biochar for environmental management: science and technology. Earthscan, London, pp 251–270Google Scholar
- Hedley M, McLaughlin M (2005) Reactions of phosphate fertilizers and by-products in soils. In: Sims JT, Sharpley AN (eds) Phosphorus: agriculture and the environment. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 181–252Google Scholar
- Morales MM, Comerford N, Guerrini IA, Falcão NPS, Reeves JB (2013) Sorption and desorption of phosphate on biochar and biochar–soil mixtures. Soil Use Manage In pressGoogle Scholar
- Nelson NO, Agudelo SC, Yuan W, Gan J (2011) Nitrogen and phosphorus availability in biochar-amended soils. Soil Sci 176:218–226Google Scholar
- Olsen SR, Cole CV, Watanabe FS (1954) Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. Circular/United States Department of Agriculture;no. 939. USDA, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Saggar S, Hedley MJ, White RE (1990) A simplified resin membrane technique for extracting phosphorus from soils. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 24:173–180Google Scholar
- Saggar S, Hedley MJ, White RE (1992a) Development and evaluation of an improved soil test for phosphorus: 1. The influence of phosphorus fertilizer solubility and soil properties on the extractability of soil P. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 33:81–91Google Scholar
- Saggar S, Hedley MJ, White RE, Gregg PEH, Perrott KW, Cornforth IS (1992b) Development and evaluation of an improved soil test for phosphorus. 2. Comparison of the Olsen and mixed cation-anion exchange resin tests for predicting the yield of ryegrass grown in pots. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 33:135–144Google Scholar
- Smith P, Martino D, Cai Z, Gwary D, Janzen H, Kumar P, McCarl B, Ogle S, O’Mara F, Rice C, Scholes B, Sirotenko O, Howden M, McAllister T, Pan G, Romanenkov V, Schneider U, Towprayoon S, Wattenbach M, Smith J (2008) Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture. Phil Trans R Soc B 363:789–813PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Soil Survey Staff (2006) Keys to soil taxonomy, 10th edn. USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Tambunan D, Hedley MJ, Bolan NS, Turner MA (1993) A comparison of sequential extraction procedures for measuring phosphate rock residues in soils. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 35:183–191Google Scholar
- Toor GS, Hunger S, Peak JD, Sims JT, Sparks DL (2006) Advances in the characterization of phosphorus in organic wastes: Environmental and agronomic applications. In Sparks DL (ed) Advances in Agronomy. Academic Press. pp 1–72Google Scholar