The nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole-phosphat (DMPP) - quantification and effects on soil metabolism
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Nitrification inhibitors (NI) formulated on granulated ammonium sulphate nitrate (ASN) are an option to minimize nitrate leaching into ground waters and emissions of the greenhouse gas N2O. This paper focuses (a) on the development of an analytic enabling to extract and quantify the NI 3,4-dimethylpyrazolephosphate (DMPP), marketed since 1999. The efficiency of DMPP has been studied in laboratory and field soils. Here the DMPP analytic and the behaviour of a nitrifying bacterial consortium enriched from a field soil and exposed to zero, field applied and a 10 fold higher DMPP concentration than the recommended one for field application are in the focus.
For extracting DMPP quantitatively from soils a method connected to a HPLC analytic has been developed by us and was standardized in laboratory experiment with a silt clay field soil (allochtone Vega). The method is detailed described here. Its reliability has been tested in a 3 years field trial under varying cropping systems and climatic conditions asides the influence of DMPP on CO2−, CH4− and N2O- emissions, measured by the closed chamber method. Parallel a nitrifying bacterial consortium of the silty clay field soil was enriched and subjected to 0, the recommended DMPP concentration for field applications and a 10 times higher one. In incubation experiments the conversion of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate in presence and absence of DMPP was spectrophotometer determined and pH-shifts with a scaled litmus paper. In sacrificed flasks at the end of incubation morphological changes of the bacteria involved were studied by transmission electron microscope (TEM).
The ammonium, nitrite and nitrate determinations and the TEM pictures show that in presence of the field applied DMPP concentration the nitrifying activity returned around 30 days later than in the control and the cells were slightly enlarged. In presence of a 10 times higher DMPP concentration a recovery was prevented. DMPP prolongs, compared with dicyandiamide (DCD), the period of nitrifiers’ inhibition and reduced N2O− and CO2− the emissions (Weiske et al., Biol Fertil Soils 34:109–117, 2001a, Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 60:57–64, b).
With the method developed by us the stability of DMPP in agricultural soils can be satisfyingly and reproducible studied down to a detection limit of 0.01 μg DMPP g−1 dry soil. The morphological changes in the nitrifying consortium due to DMPP concentrations are in agreement with the recovery rate found by nitrite and nitrate formation.
KeywordsNitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazolephosphat (DMPP) DMPP quantification Dicyandiamide (DCD) Transmission electron microscopy Microbial soil processes
We highly regret that Prof Johannes CG Ottow, project leader when the method was developed, died unexpectedly on August 20, 2011, and we dedicate posthum this paper to him. We thank Dr. Pasda, Prof Dr. Wissemeier, BASF, PD Dr. Rod Snowdon, Department of Plant Breeding, and Prof Sylvia Schnell, Department of Applied Microbiology for helpful suggestions on the manuscript.
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