The nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole-phosphat (DMPP) - quantification and effects on soil metabolism
- 918 Downloads
Nitrification inhibitors (NI) formulated on granulated ammonium sulphate nitrate (ASN) are an option to minimize nitrate leaching into ground waters and emissions of the greenhouse gas N2O. This paper focuses (a) on the development of an analytic enabling to extract and quantify the NI 3,4-dimethylpyrazolephosphate (DMPP), marketed since 1999. The efficiency of DMPP has been studied in laboratory and field soils. Here the DMPP analytic and the behaviour of a nitrifying bacterial consortium enriched from a field soil and exposed to zero, field applied and a 10 fold higher DMPP concentration than the recommended one for field application are in the focus.
For extracting DMPP quantitatively from soils a method connected to a HPLC analytic has been developed by us and was standardized in laboratory experiment with a silt clay field soil (allochtone Vega). The method is detailed described here. Its reliability has been tested in a 3 years field trial under varying cropping systems and climatic conditions asides the influence of DMPP on CO2−, CH4− and N2O- emissions, measured by the closed chamber method. Parallel a nitrifying bacterial consortium of the silty clay field soil was enriched and subjected to 0, the recommended DMPP concentration for field applications and a 10 times higher one. In incubation experiments the conversion of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate in presence and absence of DMPP was spectrophotometer determined and pH-shifts with a scaled litmus paper. In sacrificed flasks at the end of incubation morphological changes of the bacteria involved were studied by transmission electron microscope (TEM).
The ammonium, nitrite and nitrate determinations and the TEM pictures show that in presence of the field applied DMPP concentration the nitrifying activity returned around 30 days later than in the control and the cells were slightly enlarged. In presence of a 10 times higher DMPP concentration a recovery was prevented. DMPP prolongs, compared with dicyandiamide (DCD), the period of nitrifiers’ inhibition and reduced N2O− and CO2− the emissions (Weiske et al., Biol Fertil Soils 34:109–117, 2001a, Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 60:57–64, b).
With the method developed by us the stability of DMPP in agricultural soils can be satisfyingly and reproducible studied down to a detection limit of 0.01 μg DMPP g−1 dry soil. The morphological changes in the nitrifying consortium due to DMPP concentrations are in agreement with the recovery rate found by nitrite and nitrate formation.
KeywordsNitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazolephosphat (DMPP) DMPP quantification Dicyandiamide (DCD) Transmission electron microscopy Microbial soil processes
We highly regret that Prof Johannes CG Ottow, project leader when the method was developed, died unexpectedly on August 20, 2011, and we dedicate posthum this paper to him. We thank Dr. Pasda, Prof Dr. Wissemeier, BASF, PD Dr. Rod Snowdon, Department of Plant Breeding, and Prof Sylvia Schnell, Department of Applied Microbiology for helpful suggestions on the manuscript.
- Ali R, Iqbal J, Tahir GR, Mahmood T (2008) Effect of 3,5-dimetylpyrazole and nitrapyrin on nitrification under high soil temperature Pak. J Bot 40:1053–1062Google Scholar
- Andreae, M (1999) ENTEC (DMPP – ein neuer Ammoniumstabilisator: Ökotoxikologische Bewertung. In: Düngen mit einer neuen Technologie – Innovation in der Düngung. Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium Agrarzentrum der BASF Limburgerhof, 17. bis 18. Mai, 1999, 3–10Google Scholar
- Benckiser G (1997) Organic inputs and soil metabolism. In: Benckiser G (ed) Fauna in soil ecosystems. Marcel Dekker, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
- Fuhrman JD (2011) Oceans of Crenarchaeta: a personal history describing this paradigm shift. Microbes 6:531–537Google Scholar
- Hatch D, Trindade H, Cardenas L, Carneiro J, Hawkins J, Scholefield D, Chadwick D (2005) Laboratory study of the effects of two nitrification inhibitors on greenhouse gas emissions from a slurry-treated arable soil: impact of diurnal temperature cycle. Biol Fertil Soils 41:225–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- He J-Z, Hu H-W, Zhang L-M (2012) Current insights into the autotrophic thaumarchaeal ammonia oxidation in acidic soils Soil Biol. Biochem 55:146–154Google Scholar
- Hutchinson GL, Mosier AR (1981) Improved soil cover methods for field measurement of nitrous oxide fluxes. Soil Sci Soc Am J 45:311–316Google Scholar
- IPCC (1995) Climate change 1995: The science of climate change. Contribution of working group 1 to the second assessment of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, UKGoogle Scholar
- Lorch HJ, Benckiser G, Ottow JCG (1995) Basic methods for counting microorganisms in soil and water. In: Alef K, Nannipieri P (eds) Methods in applied soil microbiology and biochemistry. Academic, London, pp 146–161Google Scholar
- Ma Y, Sun L, Xhang X, Yang B, Wang J, Yin B, Yan X, Xeong Z (2012) Mitigation of nitrous oxide emissions from paddy soil under conventional and no-till pratices using nitrification inhibitors during the winter wheat-growing season. Biol Fertil Soil 33:438–442Google Scholar
- Majumder D, Pandiya B, Arora A & Dhara S (2004) Potential use of karanjinGoogle Scholar
- Miroshnichenko IML, Gongadze GM, Rainey FA, Kostyukova AS, Lysenko M, Chernyhl NA, Bonch-Osmolovskaya EA (1998) Thermococcus gorgonarius sp. nov. And Thermococcus pacificus sp. nov.: heterotrophic extremely thermophilic archaea from New Zealand submarine hot vents. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48:23–29Google Scholar
- Politic Incentives for Climate Change Mitigation Agricultural Techniques for an agricultural policy towards the year 2020; PICCMAT, 2011. http://www.climatechangeintelligence.baastel.be/piccmat/index.php
- Schlichting E, Blume HP, Stahr K (1995) Bodenkundliches Praktikum. Blackwell, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Subbarao GV, Sahrawat KL, Nakahara K, Rao IM, Ishitani M, Hash CT, Kishii M, Bonnett DG, Berry WL, Lata JC (2012) A paradigm shift towards low-nitrifying production systems: the role of biological nitrification inhibition (BNI). Ann Bot. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcs230
- Tindaon F, Benckiser G, Ottow JCG (2012) Evaluation of the effect of the nitrification inhibitors 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP), 4-chloro methylpyrazole (CIMP) in comparison to dicyandiamide (DCD) on non-target microbial activity in soils as assessed by dehydrogenase- and dimethylsulfoxide reductase activity. Biol Fertil Soils 48:643–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- VDLUFA-Methodenbuch II.I, 4. Erg. (2008) Bestimmung von 3, 4-Dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-Phosphat. 12.2.2, VDLUFA-Verlag, Darmstadt, GermanyGoogle Scholar
- Weiske A, Benckiser G, Herbert T, Ottow JCG (2001a) Influence of the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) in comparison to dicyandiamide (DCD) on nitrous oxide emissions, carbon dioxide fluxes and methane oxidation during 3 years of repeated application in field experiments. Biol Fertil Soils 34:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wissemeier A, Linzmeier W, Gutser R, Weigelt W & Schmidhalter U (2002) The new nitrification inhibitor DMPP (ENTEC®) — Comparisons with DCD in model studies and field applications. Plant Nutri. Develop. Plant Soil Sci. 92, Symposium 10: 702–703, doi: 10.1007/0-306-47624-X_340