Plant and Soil

, Volume 369, Issue 1–2, pp 453–465 | Cite as

Alleviation of salt stress of symbiotic Galega officinalis L. (goat's rue) by co-inoculation of Rhizobium with root-colonizing Pseudomonas

  • Dilfuza Egamberdieva
  • Gabriela Berg
  • Kristina Lindström
  • Leena A. Räsänen
Regular Article


Background and aims

Salt stress is an increasing problem in agricultural soils in many parts of the world, and salt tolerant cropping systems are in great demand. We investigated the effect of co-inoculation of Galega officinalis with Rhizobium galegae and two plant growth promoting Pseudomonas species on plant growth, nodulation, and N content under salt stress.


The effect of inoculation with R. galegae sv. officinalis HAMBI 1141 alone and in combination with the root-colonizing Pseudomonas extremorientalis TSAU20 or Pseudomonas trivialis 3Re27 on the growth of G. officinalis exposed to salt stress (50 and 75 mM NaCl) was studied under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions.


The growth of goat’s rue was reduced at 50 and 75 mM NaCl both in the gnotobiotic sand system and in low-fertilized potting soil in the greenhouse. Co-inoculation of unstressed and salt-stressed goat’s rue with R. galegae HAMBI 1141 and either P. extremorientalis TSAU20 or P. trivialis 3Re27 significantly improved root and shoot growth and increased nodulation of plant roots in both growth systems compared with plants inoculated with R. galegae alone. The nitrogen content of co-inoculated plant roots was significantly increased at 75 mM NaCl in potting soil. Co-inoculation of G. officinalis with either of the two plant growth promoting (PGPR) Pseudomonas strains also improved root tip-colonization by R. galegae cells.


The co-inoculation of goat’s rue with Rhizobium and PGPR Pseudomonas strains alleviated salt stress of plants grown in NaCl-amended gnotobiotic sand systems and in potting soil in the greenhouse.


Goat's rue Galega officinalis Galega orientalis Rhizobium galegae Pseudomonas Plant growth promotion Salt stress Bacterial colonization 



This study was supported by the UNESCO-L”OREAL Fellowship for “Women in Science” and the Academy of Finland. We thank Li Li (University of Helsinki) for technical assistance in the greenhouse and Marjut Wallner (University of Helsinki) for the analysis of the plant nitrogen content.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dilfuza Egamberdieva
    • 1
    • 3
  • Gabriela Berg
    • 2
  • Kristina Lindström
    • 3
  • Leena A. Räsänen
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of Biology and Soil SciencesNational University of UzbekistanTashkentUzbekistan
  2. 2.Institute of Environmental BiotechnologyGraz University of TechnologyGrazAustria
  3. 3.Department of Food and Environmental SciencesUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  4. 4.Department of Agronomical Microbiology, Institute of Soil Science and Plant CultivationState Research InstitutePuławyPoland

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