Converting paddy fields to Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) stands affected soil nutrient concentrations, labile organic carbon pools, and organic carbon chemical compositions
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Background and aims
Land-use change often markedly alters soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pool sizes with implications for climate change and soil sustainability. The objective of this research was to study the effect of converting paddy fields to Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) stands on soil C and N and other nutrient pools as well as the chemical structure of soil organic C (SOC) in the soil profile.
Soils (Anthrosols) from four adjacent paddy field–bamboo forest pairs with a known land-use history were sampled from Lin’an County, Zhejiang Province. Soil water soluble organic C (WSOC), hot water soluble organic C (HWSOC), microbial biomass C (MBC), readily oxidizable C (ROC), water soluble organic N (WSON), and other soil chemical and physical properties were determined. Soil organic C functional group compositions were determined by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).
Concentrations of soil available P, available K, and different N forms increased (P < 0.05) by the land-use conversion. Higher concentrations of SOC and total N (TN) were observed in the subsoil (20–40 and 40–60 cm soil layers) but not in the topsoil (0–20 cm layer) in the bamboo stands than in the paddy fields. The storage of SOC and TN in the entire soil profile (0–60 cm) increased by 56.7 and 70.7 %, respectively, after the land-use change. The increases in the SOC stock of the three soil layers were 11.0, 14.3, and 9.5 Mg C ha−1, respectively. The conversion decreased WSOC concentrations in the subsoil but increased the ROC concentration in the topsoil. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy of soil samples showed that the conversion increased (P < 0.05) the O-alkyl C content while decreased the aromatic C content, alkyl C to O-alkyl C ratio (A/O-A), and aromaticity of SOC.
Conversion of paddy fields to bamboo stands increased soil nutrient availability, and SOC and TN stocks. Effects of land-use change on C pools and C chemistry of SOC varied among different soil layers in the profile. The impact of the land-use conversion on soil organic C pools was not restricted to the topsoil, but changes in the subsoil were equally large and should be accounted for.
KeywordsC NMR Labile C pool Land-use change Nutrient pool Subsoil
We thank the two anonymous reviewers and the editor for their constructive comments that greatly improved the quality of an earlier version of this manuscript. This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 31170576), the Key Foundation of Science and Technology Department of Zhejiang Province (no. 2011C12019), the Youth Creative Group of Zhejiang A & F University (2009RC04), and the Scientific Research Development of Zhejiang A & F University (2007FR040).
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