Survival of endophytic bacteria in polymer-based inoculants and efficiency of their application to sugarcane
- 721 Downloads
Background & aims
Studies have been conducted to evaluate maintenance of cell viability and stability, as well as to select cheap carriers to extend the shelf life of plant beneficial bacterial inoculants for agricultural crops. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shelf life and the colonization efficiency of novel liquid and gel-based inoculant formulations for sugarcane. The different inoculant formulations were all composed of a mixture of five strains of diazotrophic bacteria (Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae, H. rubrisubalbicans, Azospirillum amazonense and Burkholderia tropica), which are recognized as sugarcane growth promoters.
Different inoculant formulations containing as carrier the polymers carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and corn starch (60/40 ratio) at five different concentrations (named PIC, for Polymeric Inoculant Carrier) were supplemented, or not, with 2 % MgO, an interfacial stabilizing agent. Bacterial survival in the different formulations during storage was evaluated under controlled conditions, and two experiments with mini-cuttings of sugarcane variety RB72454 were carried out under greenhouse conditions.
Laboratory tests showed that in the formulation composed of 0.8 g of the polymeric mixture per 100 g of the final product (PIC 0.8), survival of G. diazotrophicus and A. amazonense was around 109 CFU∙mL−1 after 120 days of storage, regardless of the supplementation with MgO. The other formulation (2.2 g of polymeric mixture, PIC 2.2) presented survival levels of 108 CFU∙mL−1 for up to 60 days of storage for all the individual strains. In the greenhouse, sugarcane seedlings showed a positive growth response 50 days after inoculation when inoculated with the mixture of five bacteria, with and without PIC 2.2.
The polymer carriers described here allowed for the long-term survival of the five different bacterial strains tested. In addition, short-term experiments in the greenhouse showed that their application as part of an inoculant on sugarcane cuttings was at least as effective in terms of bacterial colonization and the promotion of plant growth as that of the bacterial mixture without carriers.
KeywordsInoculants Colonization Microorganisms PGPB Poaceae
This work was partially funded by Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária—Embrapa grant number 03.08.06.001, National Researcher Council (CNPq) grant number 475754/2008-5, Rio de Janeiro Researcher Foundation (FAPERJ) grant number E- 26/112.020/2008. Also the PhD and MS researcher fellowships of the students and Faperj “Bolsa Cientista do Nosso Estado” of (FAPERJ) and CNPq of the researchers. The authors wish to thank Dr. Robert Michael Boddey for his kind revision of the manuscript.
- Baldani JI, Pot B, Kirchhof G, Falsen E, Baldani VLD, Olivares FL, Hoste B, Kersters K, Hartmann A, Gillis M, Döbereiner J (1996) Emended description of Herbaspirillum; a mild plant pathogen, as Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans comb. nov.; and classification of a group of clinical isolates (EF group 1) as Herbaspirillum species 3. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46:802–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Döbereiner J (1995) Isolation and identification of aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria from soil and plants. In: Alef J, Nannipieri P (eds) Methods in applied soil microbiology and biochemistry. Academic, London, pp 134–141Google Scholar
- Ferreira JS, Sabino DCC, Guimarães SL, Baldani JI, Baldani VLD (2003) Seleção de veículos para o preparo de inoculante com bactérias diazotróficas para arroz inundado. Rev Agron 37:6–12Google Scholar
- Ferreira JS, Baldani JI, Baldani VLD (2010) Seleção de inoculantes à base de turfa contendo bactériasdiazotróficas em duas variedades de arroz. Acta Sci Agron 32:179–185Google Scholar
- Jensen ES, Peoples M, Boddey RM, Gresshoff PM, Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Alves BJR, Morrison M (2012) Legumes for mitigation of climate change and the provision of feedstock for biofuels and biorefineries. A review. Agron Sustain Dev (in press, doi: 10.1007/s13593-011-0056-7)
- Magalhães FM, Baldani JI, Souto SM, Kuykendall JR, Döbereiner J (1983) A new acid-tolerant Azospirillum species. Acad Brasil Ciênc 55:417–430Google Scholar
- Pochon J, Tardieux P (1962) Techniques d’analyse en microbiologie du sol. Éditions de la Tourelle, St Mandé (Seine). p 105Google Scholar
- Reis VM, Estrada-de-Los-Santos P, Tenorio-Salgado S, Volgel J, Stoffels S, Guyon S, Mavingui P, Baldani VLD, Schmid M, Baldani JI, Balandreau J, Hartmann A, Caballero-Mellado J (2004) Burkholderia tropica sp. nov., a novel nitrogen-fixing, plant-associated bacterium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:2155–2162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Snedecor GW, Cochran GW (1980) Statistical methods, 7th edn. Iowa State University Press, Ames, 507Google Scholar