Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 293, Issue 1–2, pp 49–59 | Cite as

Responses to Mg/Ca balance in an Iranian serpentine endemic plant, Cleome heratensis (Capparaceae) and a related non-serpentine species, C. foliolosa

  • T. Asemaneh
  • S. M. Ghaderian
  • A. J. M. Baker
Original Paper

Abstract

A soil Ca/Mg quotient greater than unity is generally considered necessary for normal plant growth but some serpentine plants are adapted to much lower Ca/Mg quotients, resulting from a major cation imbalance in their substrata. In order to investigate the growth and tolerance responses of serpentine and non-serpentine species to varied Ca/Mg quotients, controlled nutrient solution experiments were performed using an a newly reported Iranian endemic serpentine plant, Cleome heratensis Bunge et Bien. Ex Boiss. and a related non-serpentine species Cleome foliolosa DC. and a Eurasian Ni-hyperaccumulating species Alyssum murale Waldst. and Kit. Seedlings were grown in modified Hoagland’s solutions with varying Ca and Mg concentrations (0.2–2.5 and 0.5–10 mM, respectively) in a fully factorial randomised block design. The yields of the two serpentine plants increased significantly as Mg concentrations in the nutrient solution were increased from 0.5 to 4 mM but decreased in the 10 mM Mg treatment. For C. foliolosa yields decreased significantly from 0.5 to 10 mM Mg, indicating the sensitivity of this non-serpentine plant, and the relative tolerance of the serpentine plants to extremely high levels of Mg. Shoot and root Mg and Ca concentrations in C. heratensis and A. murale were higher than those in C. foliolosa in the low and moderate Mg treatments, supporting the view that many serpentine plants have a relatively high requirement for Mg. Maximum Mg concentrations were found in the roots of C. heratensis. Yields of C. heratensis and A. murale did not change significantly as Ca levels in nutrient solution increased from 0.2 to 2.5 mM Ca, However the yield of C. foliolosa increased significantly from 0.2 to 1.5 mM Ca, indicating sensitivity in this non-serpentine plant and tolerance of the two serpentine plants to low levels of Ca correlated with tissue Ca concentrations, probably because of a greater ability for Ca uptake at low-Ca availability. Calcium deficiency in the low-Ca treatments could be a reason for reduced yield in the non-serpentine plants.

Keywords

Calcium Cleome heratensis Magnesium/calcium balance Serpentine tolerance 

Notes

Acknowledgements

A scholarship to the senior author from the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology of Iran (MSRT) and Yasuj and Isfahan Universities is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. Asemaneh T, Ghaderian SM, Baker AJM (2005) Biogeochemical aspects of the Iranian endemic serpentine plant Cleome heratensis (Capparaceae). In: Lombi E et al. (eds) Abstracts of the 8th international conference on the biogeochemistry of trace elements (ICOBTE), Adelaide, South Australia, 3–7 April 2005, pp820–821. CSIRO Land and WaterGoogle Scholar
  2. Asemaneh T, Ghaderian SM, Crawford SA, Marshall AT, Baker AJM (2006) Cellular and subcellular compartmentation of Ni in the Eurasian serpentine plants Alyssum bracteatum, A. murale (Brassicaceae) and Cleome heratensis (Capparaceae). Planta (in press)Google Scholar
  3. Bradshaw HD (2005) Mutations in CAX1 produce phenotypes characteristic of plants tolerant to serpentine soils. New Phytol 167:81–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brady KU, Kruckeberg AR, Bradshaw HD (2005) Evolutionary ecology of plant adaptation to serpentine soils. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 36:243–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Broadley MR, Bowen HC, Cotterill HL, Hammond JP, Meacham MC, Mead A, White PJ (2003) Variation in the shoot calcium content of angiosperms. J Exp Bot 54:1431–1446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brooks RR (1987) Serpentine and its vegetation. A multidisciplinary approach. Dioscorides Press, Portland, USA, 454ppGoogle Scholar
  7. Bush DS (1995) Calcium regulation in plant cells and its role in signaling. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 46:95–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cakmak I, Hengeler C, Marschner H (1994) Changes in phloem export of sucrose in leaves in response to phosphorus, potassium and magnesium deficiency in bean plants. J Exp Bot 278:1251–1257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cheng NH, Pittman JK, Bronwyn JB, Shigaki T, Hirchi KD (2003) The Arabidopsis cax1 mutant exhibits impaired ion homeostasis, development, and hormonal responses and reveals interplay among vacuolar transporters. Plant Cell 15:347–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Demidchik V, Davenport RJ, Tester M (2002) Nonselective cation channels in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53:67–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Evans DE, Briars SA, Williams LE, Chanson A (1991) Active transport of proton and calcium in higher plant cells. J Exp Bot 42:285–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fox TC, Guerinot ML (1998) Molecular biology of cation transport in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49:669–696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ghaderian SM, Baker AJM (2006) Geobotanical and biogeochemical reconnaissance of the ultramafics of Central Iran. J Geochem Explor (in press)Google Scholar
  14. Goodwin-Bailey CI, Woodell SRJ, Loughman BC (1992) The response of serpentine, mine spoil and saltmarsh races of Armeria maritima (Mill.) Willd. to each others’ soils. In: Baker AJM, Proctor J, Reeves RD (eds) The vegetation of ultramafic (Serpentine) soils. Intercept Limited, Andover, UK, pp 375–390Google Scholar
  15. Hirschi KD, Zhen RG, Cunningham KW, Rea PA, Fink GR (1996) CAX1, an H+/Ca2+ antiporter from Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:8782–8786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kinraide TB (1994) Use of the Gouy-Champan-Stern model for membrane surface electrical potential to intercept some features of mineral rhizotoxicity. Plant Physiol 106:1583–1592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kruckeberg AR (1984) California serpentines: flora, vegetation, geology, soils and management problems. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 180 ppGoogle Scholar
  18. Lavon R, Goldschmidt EE (1999) Effect of potassium, magnesium, and calcium deficiencies on nitrogen constituents and chloroplast components in Citrus leaves. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 124:158–162Google Scholar
  19. Lombini A, Llugany M, Poschenrieder C, Dinelli E, Barceló J (2003) influence of the Ca/Mg ratio on Cu resistance in three Silene armeria ecotypes adapted to calcareous soil or to different, Ni- or Cu- enriched, serpentine sites. J Plant Physiol 160:1451–1456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Madhok OP, Walker RB (1969) Magnesium nutrition of two species of sunflower. Plant Physiol 44:1016–1020PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Main JL (1981) Magnesium and calcium nutrition of a serpentine endemic grass. Am Midl Nat 105:196–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Miller SP, Cumming JR (2000) Effect of serpentine soil factors on Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) seedlings. Tree Physiol 20:1129–1135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. O’Dell RE, Claassen VP (2006) Serpentine and non-serpentine Achillea millefolium accessions differ in serpentine substrate tolerance and response to organic and inorganic amendments. Plant Soil 279:253–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. O’Dell RE, James JJ, Richards JH (2006) Congeneric serpentine and non-serpentine shrubs differ more in leaf Ca:Mg than in tolerance of low N, low P, or heavy metals. Plant Soil 280:49–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Parker DR, Norvell WA (1999) Advances in solution culture methods for plant mineral nutrition research. Adv Agron 65:151–213Google Scholar
  26. Parker DR, Norvell WA, Chaney RL (1995) GEOCHEM-PC: a chemical speciation program for IBM and compatible personal computers. In: Loeppert RH (eds), Chemical equilibrium and reaction models. ASA, SSSA Madison, WI, pp 253–269Google Scholar
  27. Parker DR, Pedler JF, Thomson DN, Li H (1998) Alleviation of copper rhizotoxicity by calcium and magnesium at defined free metal-ion activities. Soil Sci Soc Am J 62:965–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Proctor J (1999) Toxins, nutrient shortages and droughts: the serpentine challenge. Trends Ecol Evol 14:334–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Proctor J, McGowan I (1976) Influence of magnesium on nickel toxicity. Nature 176:234Google Scholar
  30. Proctor J, Nagy L (1992) Ultramafic rocks and their vegetation: an overview. In: Baker AJM, Proctor J, Reeves RD (eds) The vegetation of ultramafic (Serpentine) soils. Intercept Limited, Andover, UK, pp 469–494Google Scholar
  31. Rajakaruna N, Siddiqi MY, Whitton J, Bohm BA, Glass ADM (2003) Differential responses to Na+/K+ and Ca2+/Mg2+ in two edaphic races of the Lasthenia californica (Asteraceae) complex: a case for parallel evolution of physiological traits. New Phytol 157:93–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Robertson AI (1985) The poisoning of roots of Zea mays by nickel ions, and protection afforded by magnesium and calcium. New Phytol 100:173–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schat H, Vooijs R, Kuiper E (1996) Identical major gene loci for heavy metal tolerances that have independently evolved in different local populations and subspecies of Silene vulgaris. Evolution 50:1888–1895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shabala S, Hariadi Y (2005) Effects of magnesium availability on the activity of plasma membrane ion transporters and light-induced responses from broad bean leaf mesophyll. Planta 221:56–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tibbetts RA, Smith JAC (1992) Vacuolar accumulation of calcium and its interaction with magnesium availability. In: Baker AJM, Proctor J, Reeves RD (eds) The vegetation of ultramafic (Serpentine) soils. Intercept Limited, Andover, UK, pp 367–373Google Scholar
  36. Tyndall RW, Hull JC (1999) Vegetation, flora, and plant physiological ecology of serpentine barrens of eastern North America. In: Anderson RC, Fralish JC, Baskin JM (eds) Savanna, barrens, and rock outcrop plant communities of North America. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 67–82Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Asemaneh
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. M. Ghaderian
    • 1
  • A. J. M. Baker
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of IsfahanIsfahanIran
  2. 2.School of BotanyUniversity of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations