Plant and Soil

, Volume 269, Issue 1–2, pp 119–129 | Cite as

Effect of pH on Na induced Ca deficiency



Although it is well known that high Na concentrations induce Ca deficiency in acidic conditions, the effect of high pH on this competitive mechanism is not so well understood. The effect of Ca activity ratio (CAR) and pH on the Ca uptake of mungbeans (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek cv. Emerald) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana cv. Pioneer) in Na dominated solution cultures and in soil was investigated. Changes in pH in the alkaline range were shown not to affect the critical CAR of 0.024 (corresponding to 90% relative root length) for mungbeans grown in solution culture. Results from soil grown mungbeans confirmed those from solution culture, with a critical CAR of 0.025. A critical CAR of 0.034 was also established for soil grown Rhodes grass. The similarity of critical values established for mungbeans and Rhodes grass in solution culture and soil justifies the use of both solution culture and soil solution measurement as techniques for studying plant growth and limitations across plant species.


bauxite residue calcium deficiency mungbean pH root growth salinity 



calcium activity ratio


completely randomised block design


completely randomised design




electrical conductivity


inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy


triple deionised.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, F 1966Calcium deficiency as a casual agent of ammonium phosphate injury to cotton seedlingsSoil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc.30485488Google Scholar
  2. Armour, J D, Laurence, R C N, Shepherd, R K, Dwyer, M J, Loader, L R 1985Calcium requirements of Virginia Bunch peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) in the Mareeba-Dimbulah area of North Queensland (Australia)Aust. J. Exp. Agric.25458464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balpande, S S, Deshpande, S B, Pal, D K 1996Factors and processes of soil degradation in Vertisols of the Purna Valley, Maharashtra, IndiaLand Degrad. Dev.7313324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bell, M J, Middleton, K J, Thompson, J P 1989aEffects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on growth and phosphorus and zinc nutrition of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in an Oxisol from subtropical AustraliaPlant Soil1174957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bell, R W, Edwards, D G, Asher, C J 1989External calcium requirements for growth and nodulation of six tropical food legumes grown in flowing solution cultureAust. J. Agric. Res.408596Google Scholar
  6. Bennett, A C, Adams, F 1970Calcium deficiency and ammonia toxicity as separate casual factors of (NH4)2HPO4-injury to seedlingsSoil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc.34255259Google Scholar
  7. Blamey, F P C, Edwards, D G, Asher, C J 1983Effects of aluminum, OH:Al and P:Al molar ratios, and ionic strength on soybean root elongation in solution cultureSoil Sci.136197207Google Scholar
  8. Bruce, R C, Warrell, L A, Edwards, D G, Bell, L C 1988Effects of aluminium and calcium in the soil solution of acid soils on root elongation of Glycine max cultivar ForrestAust. J. Agric. Res.39319338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bussler, W 1960Relationships between root formation and boron in sunflowersZ. Pflanz. Dung. Bodenk.92114Google Scholar
  10. Carter, M R, Webster, G R, Cairns, R R 1979Calcium deficiency in some Solonetzic soils of AlbertaJ. Soil Sci.30161174Google Scholar
  11. Cramer, G R, Läuchli, A 1986Ion activities in solution in relation to sodium-calcium interactions at the plasmalemmaJ. Exp. Bot.37321330Google Scholar
  12. Cramer, G R, Läuchli, A, Polito, V S 1985Displacement of Ca2+ by Na+ from the plasmalemma of root cellsPlant Physiol.79207211Google Scholar
  13. Davenport, R J, Reid, R J, Smith, F A 1997Sodium-calcium interactions in two wheat species differing in salinity tolerancePhysiol. Plant.99323327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dubey, S K 1996Use of pyrites in combination with farm yard manure to ameliorate calcareous sodic vertisolAgric. Sci. Dig.16192194Google Scholar
  15. GenStat 2002. GenStat for Windows. Release 6.1, 6th edn. VSN International Ltd., Oxford.Google Scholar
  16. Geraldson, C M 1957Factors affecting calcium nutrition of celery, tomato, and pepperSoil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc.21621625Google Scholar
  17. Geraldson, C M 1970Intensity and balance concepts as an approach to optimal vegetable productionCommun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal.1187196Google Scholar
  18. Gerard, C J 1971Influence of osmotic potential, temperature, and calcium on growth of plant rootsAgron. J.63555558Google Scholar
  19. Grattan, S R, Grieve, C M 1999Salinity-mineral nutrient relations in horticultural cropsSci. Hortic.78127157Google Scholar
  20. Grieve, C M, Fujiyama, H 1987The response of two rice cultivars to external Na/Ca ratioPlant Soil103245250Google Scholar
  21. Grieve, C M, Maas, E V 1988Differential effects of sodium/calcium ratio on sorghum genotypesCrop Sci.28659665Google Scholar
  22. Hailes, KJ 1998Assessment and amelioration of soil magnesium in acid soils. In School of Land and Food SciencesUniversity of QueenslandBrisbane Queensland265Google Scholar
  23. Hanson, J B 1984The functions of calcium in plant nutritionTinker, P BLäuchli, A eds. Advances in Plant NutritionPraegerNew York149208Google Scholar
  24. Howard, D D, Adams, F 1965Calcium requirement for penetration of subsoils by primary cotton rootsSoil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc.29558562Google Scholar
  25. Jones, J B, Woolf, B, Mills, H A 1991Plant Analysis Handbook: A Practical Sampling, Preparation, Analysis and Interpretation GuideMicro-Macro PublishingAthens Georgia213Google Scholar
  26. Kingston, G, Aitken, R L 1996Factors Affecting the Residual Value of LimeBureau of Sugar Experimental StationsBrisbaneGoogle Scholar
  27. Kinraide, T 1999Interactions among Ca2+, Na+ and K+ in salinity toxicity: quantitative resolution of multiple toxic and ameliorative effectsJ. Exp. Bot.5014951505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kopittke P M and Menzies N W 2004. Control of nutrient solutions for studies at high pH. Plant Soil (in press).Google Scholar
  29. Lund, Z F 1970The effect of calcium and its relation to several cations in soybean growthSoil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc.34456459Google Scholar
  30. Maas, E V, Grieve, C M 1987Sodium-induced calcium deficiency in salt-stressed cornPlant Cell Environ.10559564Google Scholar
  31. Marschner, H 1995Mineral Nutrition of Higher PlantsAcademic PressLondon889Google Scholar
  32. Martinie, G D, Schilt, A A 1976Investigation of the wet oxidation efficiencies of perchloric acid mixturesAnal. Chem.487074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Menzies, N, Guppy, C 2000In-situ soil solution extraction with polyacrylonitrile hollow-fibersCommun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal.3118751886Google Scholar
  34. Menzies, N W, Edwards, D G, Bell, L C 1994Effects of calcium and aluminium in the soil solution of acid, surface soils on root elongation of mungbeanAust. J. Soil Res.32721737Google Scholar
  35. Menzies N W, Fulton I M and Morrell W J 2004 Seawater neutralization of alkaline bauxite residue: Implications for revegetation. J. Environ. Qual. (submitted).Google Scholar
  36. Moody, P W, Edwards, D G, Bell, L C 1995Effect of banded fertilizers on soil solution composition and short-term root growth. II. Mono- and di-ammonium phosphatesAust. J. Soil Res.33689707Google Scholar
  37. Murthy, R S, Hirekerur, L R, Deshpande, S B, Venkat Rao, B V 1982Benchmark Soils of IndiaNational Bureau of Soil Survey and Landuse PlanningNew DelhiGoogle Scholar
  38. Norlyn, J D, Epstein, E 1984Variability in salt tolerance of 4 triticale (Triticosecale) lines at germination and emergenceCrop Sci.2410901092Google Scholar
  39. Pal, D K, Balpande, S S, Srivastava, P 2001Polygenetic Vertisols of the Purna Valley of Central IndiaCatena43231249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Parkhurst D L 2002. PhreeqcI. United States Geological Survey. (accessed Jan 2004).Google Scholar
  41. Plaut, Z, Grieve, C M 1988Photosynthesis of salt-stressed maize as influenced by calcium:sodium ratios in the nutrient solutionPlant Soil105283286Google Scholar
  42. Presley, J T, Leonard, O A 1948The effect of calcium and other ions on the early development of the radicle of cotton seedlingsPlant Physiol.23516525Google Scholar
  43. Rayment, G E, Higginson, F R 1992Australian Laboratory Handbook of Soil and Water Chemical MethodsInkata PressMelbourne330Google Scholar
  44. Rios, M A, Pearson, R W 1964The effect of some chemical environmental factors on cotton root behaviourSoil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc.28232235Google Scholar
  45. Ritchey, K D, Silva, J E, Costa, U F 1982Calcium deficiency in clayey B horizons of savanna OxisolsSoil Sci.133378382Google Scholar
  46. Russell, J S 1976Comparative salt tolerance of some tropical and temperate legumes and tropical grassesAust. J. Exp. Agr. Anim. Hus.16103109Google Scholar
  47. Sandsted, R F 1989Dry beansPlucknett, D LSprague, H B eds. Detecting Mineral Nutrient Deficiencies in Tropical and Temperate CropsWestview PressBoulder Colorado553Google Scholar
  48. Smith, F W 1974The effect of sodium on potassium nutrition and ionic relations in Rhodes grassAust. J. Agric. Res.25407414Google Scholar
  49. Smith, F W 1973Foliar Symptoms of Nutrient Disorders in Chloris gayanaCommonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research OrganizationMelbourne9Google Scholar
  50. Smith, F W, Imrie, B C, Pieters, W H J 1983Foliar Symptoms of Nutrient Disorders in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata)Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research OrganisationMelbourne11Google Scholar
  51. Suarez, D L, Grieve, C M 1988Predicting cation ratios in corn from saline solution compositionJ. Exp. Bot.39605612Google Scholar
  52. Weir, R G, Cresswell, G C 1993Plant Nutrient Disorders. 1. Temperate and Subtropical Fruit and Nut CropsInkata PressMelbourne93Google Scholar
  53. Weir, RG, Cresswell, GC 1994Plant Nutrient Disorders. 4. Pastures and Field CropsInkata PressMelbourne126Google Scholar
  54. Wilkinson, R E, Duncan, R R 1989Sorghum seedling growth as influenced by H+, Ca++, and Mn++ concentrationsJ. Plant Nutr.1213791394Google Scholar
  55. Wolt, J D, Adams, F 1979Critical levels of soil- and nutrient-solution calcium for vegetative growth and fruit development of Florunner peanutsSoil Sci. Soc. Am. J.4311591164Google Scholar
  56. Yermiyahu, U, Nir, S, Ben-Hayyim, G, Kafkafi, U 1994Quantitative competition of calcium with sodium or magnesium for sorption sites on plasma membrane vesicles of melon (Cucumis melo L.) root cellsJ. Membr. Biol.1385563PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Mined Land RehabilitationUniversity of QueenslandSt. LuciaAustralia

Personalised recommendations