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Plant Molecular Biology

, Volume 87, Issue 1–2, pp 157–167 | Cite as

ZmGRF, a GA regulatory factor from maize, promotes flowering and plant growth in Arabidopsis

  • Miaoyun Xu
  • Yunming Lu
  • Hongmei Yang
  • Jingcheng He
  • Zhiqiu Hu
  • Xiaolong Hu
  • Mingda Luan
  • Lan Zhang
  • Yunliu Fan
  • Lei Wang
Article

Abstract

Transcription factors that act as positive regulators of gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic genes in plants are not well understood. A nuclear-localized basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ZmGRF, was isolated from maize. The core DNA sequence motif recognized for binding by ZmGRF was CCANNTGGC. ZmGRF overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants promoted flowering, stem elongation, and cell expansion. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that ZmGRF bound directly to the cis-element CCANNTGGC in the promoter of the Arabidopsis ent-kaurene oxidase (AtKO1) gene and promoted AtKO1 expression. GA4 content increased by 372–567 % in transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ZmGRF compared to wild-type control plants. The GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1 gene, which encodes a GA receptor, was also upregulated and the growth-repressing DELLA protein gene GA INSENSITIVE was downregulated. Our results showed ZmGRF functioned through the GA-signaling pathway.

Keywords

GA Flowering AtKO1 Arabidopsis bZIP transcription factor 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr Xiaoduo Lu (Department of Life Sciences, Qilu Normal University) for DIC microscopy analysis. This work was supported by the National High-Tech R&D Program (Grant No. 2012AA10A306), the National Key Basic Research Program (Grant No. 2014CB138200) and the National Special Program for Transgenic Research (2010ZX08010-002).

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOC 5425 kb)
11103_2014_267_MOESM2_ESM.doc (32 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 32 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miaoyun Xu
    • 1
  • Yunming Lu
    • 2
  • Hongmei Yang
    • 1
    • 3
  • Jingcheng He
    • 2
  • Zhiqiu Hu
    • 1
    • 4
  • Xiaolong Hu
    • 1
    • 5
  • Mingda Luan
    • 1
    • 5
  • Lan Zhang
    • 1
  • Yunliu Fan
    • 1
  • Lei Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Biotechnology Research Institute, National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic ImprovementChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Shenzhen Nongke Group CO., LtdShenzhenChina
  3. 3.Institute of MicrobiologyXinjiang Academy of Agricultural SciencesUrumqiChina
  4. 4.Department of Agriculture Food and Nutritional ScienceUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  5. 5.College of Life Science and EngineeringSouthwest University of Sciences and TechnologyMianyangChina

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