Plant Molecular Biology

, Volume 69, Issue 6, pp 633–648 | Cite as

Ectopic expression of VlmybA1 in grapevine activates a narrow set of genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis and transport

  • Maria-Cruz Cutanda-Perez
  • Agnès AgeorgesEmail author
  • Camila Gomez
  • Sandrine Vialet
  • Nancy Terrier
  • Charles Romieu
  • Laurent Torregrosa


The colour of the red wine is essentially due to the release of anthocyanins from the red skin of grape berries during the process of wine making. Anthocyanins are synthesized during ripening of the berries under the control of VvMYBA1 transcription factor that controls the expression of UFGT. In order to identify the whole set of downstream regulated genes, we targeted constitutive ectopic expression of VlmybA1-2 into grapevine hairy roots and plants. The ectopic expression of VlmybA1-2 triggered de novo production and storage of anthocyanins in all transgenic vegetative organs, leading to a very intense red coloration, and did not interfere with proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis. The ectopic red pigmentation was due to the accumulation of anthocyanins in vacuoles and anthocyanin vacuolar inclusion (AVIs) in all organs but only in specific tissues. A transcriptomic analysis using a 14 K oligoarray revealed that the ectopic expression of VlmybA1-2 activated only few genes, most of which are involved in both PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis, while the expression of BAN and LAR (two specific genes of the PA biosynthesis pathway) was unaffected. Among these, 4 genes emerged given the amplitude of their up-regulation, quantitatively similar to VlmybA1-2 itself. In addition to the previously described UFGT, this set comprised an isogen of GST, an O-methyltransferase, both of which are supposed to play a role in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, as well as a candidate gene putatively involved in the vacuolar anthocyanin transport in grapevine (anthoMATE). Together, these results suggest that MybA1 activates the last steps of anthocyanin synthesis and transport through the regulation of a narrow, specific spectrum of genes regulated as a cluster.


Anthocyanin MybA1 regulatory gene Transcription factor Vitis vinifera Grapevine transformation 



Chalcone synthase

F 3′-H

Flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase

F 3′5′-H

Flavonoid 3′, 5′-hydroxylase


Leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase


UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase






Glutathione S-transferase


Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion


Leucoanthocyanidin reductase


Anthocyanidin reductase



This work was financially supported by the EU program FLAVO 2005-513960. The authors thank Dr. M. Curtis (University of Zurich) for providing Gateway compatible cloning vectors, Dr. S. Kobayashi, who kindly provided VlMybA1-2, and Clotilde Verriès for her analytical help. M. C. Cutanda received a postdoctoral grant provided by the Consejería de Educación y Ciencia de la Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha.

Supplementary material

11103_2008_9446_MOESM1_ESM.xls (5.4 mb)
Experimental design (“design”, sheet 1); complete hybridization results log2 transformed and normalized (“Int-lognorm”, sheet 2), list of genes significantly (P value <0.05) affected by ectopic overexpression of VlmybA1-2 (“MybA1significant”, sheet 3) (XLS 5499 kb)
11103_2008_9446_MOESM2_ESM.xls (166 kb)
List of genes significantly overexpressed (more than 1.5) in hairy roots expressing VlmybA1-2 (sheet 1) and list of genes significantly repressed (more than 1.5) in hairy roots expressing VlmybA1-2 (sheet 2). (XLS 166 kb)
11103_2008_9446_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (14 kb)
Expression analysis of transcripts ANR, LAR1 and LAR2. Expression values have been normalized with VvEF1alpha and expressed as relative abundance. All values are the mean of three replicates on two independent lines. (PDF 14 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria-Cruz Cutanda-Perez
    • 1
  • Agnès Ageorges
    • 2
    Email author
  • Camila Gomez
    • 2
  • Sandrine Vialet
    • 2
  • Nancy Terrier
    • 2
  • Charles Romieu
    • 1
  • Laurent Torregrosa
    • 1
  1. 1.UMR DIAPC, INRA – Campus SupAgroMontpellier Cedex 2France
  2. 2.UMR SPO, INRA – Campus SupAgroMontpellier Cedex 2France

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