Co-regulation of nuclear genes encoding plastid ribosomal proteins by light and plastid signals during seedling development in tobacco and Arabidopsis
Genes encoding plastid ribosomal proteins are distributed between the nuclear and plastid genomes in higher plants, and coordination of their expression is likely to be required for functional plastid protein synthesis. A custom microarray has been used to examine the patterns of accumulation of transcripts from plastid and nuclear genes encoding plastid ribosomal proteins during seedling development in tobacco and Arabidopsis. The transcripts accumulate coordinately during early seedling development and show similar responses to light and to inhibitors, such as norflurazon and lincomycin, affecting plastid signaling. Computational analysis of the promoters of these genes revealed a shared initiator motif and common cis-elements characteristic of photosynthesis genes, specifically the GT-1 element, and the I-box. Analysis of the RPL27 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that transcription initiates from an initiator-like region. Deletion analysis of the RPL27 promoter in transgenic plants revealed that the identified shared cis-elements were not all required for wild-type expression patterns, and full developmental, light- and plastid-regulation can be conveyed by a region of the promoter from −235 to +1 relative to the transcription start site.
KeywordsInitiator element Lincomycin Microarray Norflurazon Plastid ribosomal protein RPL27
Rapid amplification of cDNA ends
We thank Dr. Christine Newell and Dr. Juliet Coates for guidance on plant transformation and GUS assays, and Sue Aspinall for technical assistance. DM was supported by a Research Studentship from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council.
- Cottage AJ, Mott AK, Wang JH, Sullivan JA, MacLean D, Tran L, Choy MK, Newell CA, Kavanagh TA, Aspinall S, Gray JC (2007) GUN1 (GENOMES UNCOUPLED1) encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein involved in plastid protein synthesis-responsive retrograde signaling to the nucleus. In: Allen J, Gantt E, Golbeck J, Osmond B (eds) Energy from the Sun (Proceedings of the International Photosynthesis Congress 2007). Springer, Berlin (in press)Google Scholar
- Gray JC, Sornarajah R, Zabron AA, Duckett CM, Khan MS (1995) Chloroplast control of nuclear gene expression. In: Mathis P (ed) Photosynthesis: from light to biosphere, vol 3. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 543–550Google Scholar
- Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (1989) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Seki M, Narusaka M, Kamiya A, Ishida J, Satou M, Sakurai T, Nakajima M, Enju A, Akiyama K, Oono Y, Muramatsu M, Hayashizaki Y, Kawai J, Carninci P, Itoh M, Ishii Y, Arakawa T, Shibata K, Shinagawa A, Shinozaki K (2002) Functional annotation of a full-length Arabidopsis cDNA collection. Science 296:141–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar