Plant Molecular Biology

, Volume 64, Issue 6, pp 683–697 | Cite as

Developmental and stimulus-induced expression patterns of Arabidopsis calmodulin-like genes CML37, CML38 and CML39



Various aspects of plant development and stress physiology are mediated by Ca2+ signaling. Ca2+ sensors, such as calmodulin, detect these signals and direct downstream signaling pathways by binding and activating diverse targets. Plants possess many unique, putative Ca2+ sensors, including a large family (50 in Arabidopsis) of calmodulin-like proteins termed CMLs. Some of these CMLs have been implicated in Ca2+-based stress response but most remain unstudied. We generated transgenic plants expressing CML::GUS reporter genes for members of a subfamily of CMLs (CML37, CML38 and CML39) which allowed us to investigate their expression patterns in detail. We found that CML::GUS genes displayed unique tissue, cell-type, and temporal patterns of expression throughout normal development, particularly in the flower, and in response to a variety of stimuli, including biotic and abiotic stress, hormone and chemical treatments. Our findings are supported by semiquantitative reverse-transcription PCR as well as analyses of microarray databases. Analysis of purified, recombinant CMLs demonstrated their ability to bind Ca2+ in vitro. Collectively, our data suggest that these CMLs likely play important roles as sensors in Ca2+-mediated developmental and stress response pathways and provide a framework of spatial and temporal expression to direct future studies aimed at elucidating their physiological roles.


Calcium Calmodulin Development GUS transgenics Stress 



Abscisic acid






glutathione S-transferase




hypersensitive response


jasmonic acid


methyl jasmonate


Murashige and Skoog


programmed cell death


reactive oxygen species


reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction


salicylic acid


5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-glucuronic acid



This work was supported by a research grant (WAS) and post-graduate scholarship (BV) from Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and a post-graduate scholarship (BV) from the Ontario Graduate Scholarship program. The authors thank Drs Sharon Regan and Brent Kaiser for a critical reading of the manuscript.

Supplementary material


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

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