Plant Molecular Biology

, Volume 59, Issue 6, pp 927–944 | Cite as

Identification of NPR1-Dependent and Independent Genes Early Induced by Salicylic Acid Treatment in Arabidopsis

  • Francisca Blanco
  • Virginia Garretón
  • Nicolas Frey
  • Calixto Dominguez
  • Tomás Pérez-Acle
  • Dominique Van der  Straeten
  • Xavier Jordana
  • Loreto Holuigue


Salicylic acid (SA) plays a crucial role in stress resistance in plants by modifying the expression of a battery of genes. In this paper, we report the identification of a group of early SA-regulated genes of Arabidopsis (activated between 0.5–2.5 h), using the cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism technique (cDNA-AFLP). Using 128 different primer combinations, we identified several genes based on their differential expression during SA treatment. Among these, we identified 12 genes up-regulated by SA whose patterns of induction were confirmed by Northern analysis. The identified genes can be grouped into two functional groups: Group 1: genes involved in cell protection (i.e. glycosyltransferases, glutathion S-transferases), and Group 2: genes involved in signal transduction (protein kinases and transcription factors). We also evaluated NPR1 requirement for the induction of the 12 up-regulated genes, and found that only those belonging to Group 2 require this co-activator for their expression. In silico analysis of the promoter sequences of the up-regulated genes, allowed us to identify putative cis-elements over-represented in these genes. Interestingly, as-1-like elements, previously characterized as SA-responsive elements, were specifically over-represented in Group 1 genes. The identification of early SA-regulated genes is an important step towards understanding the complex role of this hormone in plant stress resistance.


as-1 cDNA-AFLP cell protection to stress early activated genes NPR1 salicylic acid 



amplified fragment length polymorphism-based transcript profiling


activation sequence-1


glutathione S-transferase




hypersensitive response


immediate early glycosyltransferase gene


jasmonic acid


nonexpressor of PR genes 1


pathogenesis-related proteins


reactive oxygen species


salicylic acid


systemic acquired resistance


transcript derived fragments


family of bZip transcription factors recognizing TGACG motif


wild type


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Copyright information

© springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francisca Blanco
    • 1
    • 3
  • Virginia Garretón
    • 1
    • 4
  • Nicolas Frey
    • 1
  • Calixto Dominguez
    • 2
  • Tomás Pérez-Acle
    • 2
  • Dominique Van der  Straeten
    • 3
  • Xavier Jordana
    • 1
  • Loreto Holuigue
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias BiológicasPontificia Universidad Católica de ChileSantiagoChile
  2. 2.Centro de Genómica y Bioinformática, Facultad de Ciencias BiológicasPontificia Universidad Católica de ChileSantiagoChile
  3. 3.Department of Molecular Genetics, Unit Plant Hormone Signaling and Bio-imagingGhent UniversityGentBelgium
  4. 4.AustralBiotech SA.SantiagoChile

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