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Phytochemistry Reviews

, Volume 14, Issue 6, pp 993–1018 | Cite as

Artichoke: botanical, agronomical, phytochemical, and pharmacological overview

  • Bruna de Falco
  • Guido Incerti
  • Mariana Amato
  • Virginia Lanzotti
Article

Abstract

Artichoke, Cynara cardunculus, is a dietary and medicinal plant species with a long tradition of use dating back to the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. It comprises the globe artichoke, C. cardunculus subsp. scolymus, the cultivated cardoon, C. cardunculus subsp. altilis, and the wild cardoon, C. cardunculus subsp. sylvestris. The edible part of the plant is limited to the fleshy leaves (bracts) and receptacle of a large immature inflorescence, named capitulum or head, that has been shown to be a rich source of bioactive compounds. On the other hand, leaves, external bracts and stems discarded by the artichoke processing industry corresponding to about 80–85 % of the total biomass of the plant, represent a suitable potential source of food additives and nutraceuticals. Nutritional and pharmacological properties of artichoke heads and leaves are attributed mainly to polyphenolic compounds and inulin present at high concentration. Other classes of chemical compounds, including flavonoids, anthocyanins, sesquiterpenes, and triterpenes have been also found in the plant at lower amounts. This review, after a general historical, phytogeographical, and ethnobotanical overview, summarizes the current knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of this plant, with special emphasis on the agronomical and nutritional importance of the plant and to the methods of analysis, including the recently developed metabolomic studies.

Keywords

Caffeoylquinic acids Cynaracardunculus Flavonoids Inulin Terpenes 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruna de Falco
    • 1
  • Guido Incerti
    • 1
  • Mariana Amato
    • 2
  • Virginia Lanzotti
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di AgrariaUniversità di Napoli “Federico II”Portici, NaplesItaly
  2. 2.Scuola di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali, Alimentari ed AmbientaliUniversità della BasilicataPotenzaItaly

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