Phytochemistry Reviews

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 343–374 | Cite as

Recent progress in phytochemistry, pharmacology and biotechnology of Astragalus saponins

  • Iliana Ionkova
  • Aleksandar Shkondrov
  • Ilina Krasteva
  • Todor Ionkov


Saponins are widely distributed among plant kingdom and possess a wide range of pharmacological properties. Genus Astragalus is the largest in the Fabaceae family, comprising more than 2,200 species spread over the Globe. Astragalus species have been used in traditional medicine of many countries as well as in the modern one. The main use in the folk medicine of the species is due to their saponin content. The paper is focused on the above mentioned group of compounds. Details on their structure, distribution, recent information on the pharmacological properties and biotechnology of Astragalus saponins will be summarized and thoroughly discussed.


Cycloartanes Oleananes Plant anticancer compounds In vitro production 



Financial support from Ministry of Education and Science, Sofia, Bulgaria (DFNI-B01/3/2012) is acknowledged.


  1. Abbas F, Zayed R (2005) Bioactive saponins from Astragalus suberi L. growing in Yemen. Z Naturforsch C 60(11/12):813–820PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abd El-Mawla AMA (2010) Production of cycloartane triterpene glycosides in shoot cultures of Astragalus sieberi DC. Nat Prod Res 24(5):416–422Google Scholar
  3. Alaniya MD, Gigoshvili TI, Kavtaradze NS (2006) Cyclogaleginoside D from Astragalus galegiformis stems. Chem Nat Compd 42(3):310–312Google Scholar
  4. Alaniya MD, Gigoshvili TI, Kavtaradze NS, Lavoi S, Pichette A, Mshvildadze VD (2007a) Cyclocephalogenin and cyclogalegigenin from Astragalus caucasicus. Chem Nat Compd 43(3):361–362Google Scholar
  5. Alaniya MD, Kavtaradze NS, Gigoshvili TI, Lavoi S, Pichette A, Mshvildadze VV (2007b) Cyclocanthoside E from Astragalus caucasicus. Chem Nat Compd 43(6):758–759Google Scholar
  6. Alaniya MD, Kavtaradze NS, Faure R, Debrauwer L (2008) Cycloascauloside B from Astragalus caucasicus. Chem Nat Compd 44(3):324–326Google Scholar
  7. Alaniya MD, Kavtaradze NS, Lavoie S, Pichette A, Mshvildadze VD, Apakidze ZZ (2011) Chemical constituents of the aerial part of Astragalus bungeanus. Chem Nat Compd 46(6):1001–1003Google Scholar
  8. Auyeung KK, Cho CH, Ko JK (2009a) A novel anticancer effect of Astragalus saponins: transcriptional activation of NSAID-activated gene. Int J Cancer 125(5):1082–1091PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Auyeung KK, Law PC, Ko JK (2009b) Astragalus saponins induce apoptosis via an ERK-independent NF-kappaB signalling pathway in the human hepatocellular HepG2 cell line. Int J Mol Med 23(2):189–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Auyeung KK, Mok NL, Wong CM, Cho CH, Ko JK (2010) Astragalus saponins modulate mTOR and ERK signalling to promote apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway in HT-29 colon cancer cells. Int J Mol Med 26(3):341–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Auyeung KK, Woo PK, Law PC, Ko JK (2012) Astragalus saponins modulate cell invasiveness and angiogenesis in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. J Ethnopharmacol 141(2):635–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Avunduk S, Mitaine-Offer AC, Alankus-Caliskan O, Miyamoto T, Senol SG, Lacaille-Dubois MA (2008) Triterpene glycosides from the roots of Astragalus flavescens. J Nat Prod 71(1):141–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bagherwal P (2011) Phytosaponin adjuvants: a better option for vaccines. Int J Pharm Tech Res 3(3):1837–1842Google Scholar
  14. Barbic M, Macabeo APG, Kreft S, Heilmann J (2010) Cycloastragenol glycosides from Astragalus illyricus. Biochem Syst Ecol 38(3):460–462Google Scholar
  15. Başalma D, Uranbey S (2008) TDZ-induced plant regeneration in Astragalus cicer L. Afr J Biotechnol 7(8):955–959Google Scholar
  16. Bensaddek L, Villarreal ML, Fliniaux MA (2008) Induction and growth of hairy roots for the production of medicinal compounds. E J Integrat Biosci 3(1):2–9Google Scholar
  17. Bian Y, Guan J, Bi Z, Song Y, Ping L (2006) Studies on chemical constituents of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao. Zhongguo Yaoxue Zazhi 41(16):1217–1221Google Scholar
  18. Bian Q, Huang JH, Liang QQ, Shu B, Hou W, Xu H, Zhao YJ, Lu S, Shi Q, Wang YJ (2011) The osteogenetic effect of astragaloside IV with centrifugating pressure on the OCT-1 cells. Pharmazie 66(1):63–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Boroujerdnia GM, Ebrahim AM, Asghar HA, Amin T, Abbas A (2011) Immunomodulatory effects of Astragalus gypsicolus hydroalcoholic extract in ovalbumin-induced allergic mice model. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 10(4):281–288Google Scholar
  20. Calis I, Barbic M, Jurgenliemk G (2008a) Bioactive cycloartane-type triterpene glycosides from Astragalus elongatus. Z Naturforsch C 63(11/12):813–820PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Calis I, Doenmez AA, Perrone A, Pizza C, Piacente S (2008b) Cycloartane glycosides from Astragalus campylosema Boiss. ssp. campylosema. Phytochemistry 69(14):2634–2638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cardarelli M, Spanol L, De Paolis A, Mauro ML, Nitali G, Constantino P (1985) Identification of the genetic locus responsible for non-polar root induction by Agrobacterium rhizogenes 1855. Plant Mol Biol 5(6):385–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Chan WS, Durairajan SS, Lu JH, Wang Y, Xie LX, Kum WF, Koo I, Yung KK, Li M (2009) Neuroprotective effects of astragaloside IV in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated primary nigral cell culture. Neurochem Int 55(6):414–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chen XJ, Meng D, Feng L, Bian YY, Li P, Yang D, Cao KJ, Zhang JN (2006) Protective effect of astragalosides on myocardial injury by isoproterenol in SD rats. Am J Chin Med 34(6):1015–1025PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chen X, Peng LH, Li N, Li QM, Li P, Fung KP, Leung PC, Gao JQ (2012) The healing and anti-scar effects of astragaloside IV on the wound repair in vitro and in vivo. J Ethnopharmacol 139(3):721–727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cheng MX, Chen ZZ, Cai YL, Liu CA, Tu B (2011) Astragaloside IV protects against ischemia reperfusion in a murine model of orthotopic liver transplantation. Transplant Proc 43(5):1456–1461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Choudhary MI, Jan S, Abbaskhan A, Musharraf SG, Samreen SR, Sattar SA, Rahman AU (2008) Cycloartane triterpenoids from Astragalus bicuspis. J Nat Prod 71(9):1557–1560Google Scholar
  28. Dineva IK, Krasteva IN, Berger MR, Konstantinov SM (2010) In vitro antineoplastic activity of some cytoreductive drugs versus new compounds of plant origin. Int J Current Chem 1(4):281–290Google Scholar
  29. Du M, Wu XJ, Ding J, Hu ZB, White KN, Branford-White CJ (2003) Astragaloside IV and polysaccharide production by hairy roots of Astragalus membranaceus in bioreactors. Biotechnol Lett 25(21):1853–1856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Du Q, Chen Z, Zhou LF, Zhang Q, Huang M, Yin KS (2008) Inhibitory effects of astragaloside IV on ovalbumin-induced chronic experimental asthma. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 86(7):449–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Erisen S, Yorgancilar M, Atalay E, Babaoglu M, Durgan A (2010) Callus induction and plant regeneration of the endemic Astragalus nezaketae in Turkey. Electron J Biotechn 13(6):1–7 Google Scholar
  32. El-Hawiet AM, Toaima SM, Asaad AM, Radwan MM, El-Sebakhy NA (2010) Chemical constituents from Astragalus annularis Forssk. and A. trimestris L., Fabaceae. Rev Bras Farmacogn 20(6):860–865Google Scholar
  33. Fathiazad F, Khosropanah MK, Movafeghi A (2010) Cycloartane-type glycosides from the roots of Astragalus caspicus Bieb. Nat Prod Res 24(11):1069–1078PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gao XH, Xu XX, Pan R, Li Y, Luo YB, Xia YF, Murata K, Matsuda H, Dai Y (2009) Saponin fraction from Astragalus membranaceus roots protects mice against polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture by inhibiting inflammation and upregulating protein C pathway. J Nat Med 63(4):421–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Georgiev M, Pavlov A, Bley T (2007) Hairy root type plant in vitro systems as sources of bioactive substances. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 74(6):1175–1185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Georgiev M, Agostini E, Ludwig-Müller J, Xu J (2012) Genetically transformed roots: from plant disease to biotechnological resource. Trends Biotech 30(10):528–537Google Scholar
  37. Gulcemal D, Alankus-Caliskan O, Perrone A, Ozgokce F, Piacente S, Bedir E (2011) Cycloartane glycosides from Astragalus aureus. Phytochemistry 72(8):761–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Han XH, Liu P, Zhang YY, Zhang N, Chen FR, Cai JF (2011) Astragaloside IV regulates expression of ATP-sensitive potassium channel subunits after ischemia-reperfusion in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. J Tradit Chin Med 31(4):321–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hasançebi S, Turgut Kara N, Çakir Ö, Ari Ş (2011) Micropropagation and root culture of Turkish endemic Astragalus chrysochlorus (Leguminosae). Turk J Bot 35:203–210Google Scholar
  40. Hirotani M, Zhou Y, Rui H, Furuya T (1994) Cycloartane triterpene glycosides from the hairy root cultures of Astragalus membranaceus. Phytochemistry 37(5):1403–1407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Horo I, Bedir E, Perrone A, Oezgoekce F, Piacente S, Alankus-Caliskan O (2010) Triterpene glycosides from Astragalus icmadophilus. Phytochemistry 71(8–9):956–963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Horo I, Bedir E, Masullo M, Piacente S, Özgökçe F, Alankuş-Çalışkan Ö (2012) Saponins from Astragalus hareftae (NAB.) SIRJ. Phytochemistry 84(1):147–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Ionkov T, Ionkova I, Momekov G, Sasheva P (2012) Improvement bioreactor production of cytotoxic saponins in Astragalus membranaceus by combined control of the bioprocesses. C R Acad Bulg Sci 65(10):1447–1454Google Scholar
  44. Ionkova I (1991) Production of saponins by conventional and transformed cultures of Astragalus hamosus (Fabaceae). Problem Pharm Pharmacol 5:31–37Google Scholar
  45. Ionkova I (1995) Astragalus species (Milk Vetch): In vitro culture and production of saponins, astragaline, and other biologically active compounds. In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry VIII. Springer, Berlin, pp 97–138Google Scholar
  46. Ionkova I (2002) In vitro culture and the production of secondary metabolites in Hyoscyamus reticulatus L. In: Nagata T, Ebizuka Y (eds) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, medicinal and aromatic plants XII. Springer, Berlin, pp 75–79Google Scholar
  47. Ionkova I (2008) Pharmaceutically significant biologically active compounds from sources with optimized phytochemical potential. Dissertation, Medical University of SofiaGoogle Scholar
  48. Ionkova I (2009a) Anticancer compounds from in vitro cultures of rare medicinal plants. Pharmacog Rev 2(4):206–218Google Scholar
  49. Ionkova I (2009b) Effect of methyl jasmonate on production of ariltetralin lignans in hairy root cultures of Linum tauricum. Pharmacog Res 2(2):102–105Google Scholar
  50. Ionkova I (2010) Biotechnology and modern production of plant made pharmaceuticals: anticancer compounds. Int J Current Chem 1(4):237–247Google Scholar
  51. Ionkova I, Alfermann W (1990) Transformation of Astragalus species by Agrobacterium rhizogenes and their saponin production. Planta Med 56(6):634–635Google Scholar
  52. Ionkova I, Alfermann A (2000) Genetic transformation in medicinal plants and the power of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for production of biologically active compounds. In: Sekulovic D, Maksimovic S and Kisgeci J (ed) Proceedings of the conference on medicinal and aromatic plants, Yugoslavia, pp 197–202Google Scholar
  53. Ionkova I, Alfermann AW (2000b) Use of DNA for detection and isolation of potential anticancer agents from plants. Pharmacia 47(1–2):10–16Google Scholar
  54. Ionkova I, Fuss E (2009) Influence of different strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes on induction of hairy roots and lignan production in Linum tauricum ssp. tauricum. Pharmacog Mag 4(17):14–18Google Scholar
  55. Ionkova I, Budzikiewicz H, Alfermann AW (1993) Cycloartane-derived saponin from transformed root cultures of Astragalus mongholicus. Planta Med 59(7):A66Google Scholar
  56. Ionkova I, Momekov G, Proksch P (2010) Effects of cycloartane saponins from hairy roots of Astragalus membranaceus Bge., on human tumor cell targets. Fitoterapia 81(5):447–451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Ionkova I, Sasheva P, Ionkov T (2012) Enhanced production of flavonoids in Astragalus missouriensis, using bioreactor by model based control of the bioprocess. In: Proceeding of the 7th conference on medicinal and aromatic plants of southeast European countries, Subotica, Serbia, 27–31 May 2012, pp 332–337Google Scholar
  58. Isaev IM, Isaev MI (2011a) Triterpene glycosides from Astragalus and their genins. XC. Askendoside K from Astragalus taschkendicus. Chem Nat Compd 47(4):587–591Google Scholar
  59. Isaev IM, Isaev MI (2011b) Triterpene glycosides from Astragalus and their genins. LXXXIX. Askendoside H from Astragalus taschkendicus. Chem Nat Compd 47(3):411–414Google Scholar
  60. Isaev MI, Gorovitz AK, Abubakirov HK (1989) Progress in chemistry of cycloartanes. Chem Nat Compd 25(2):131–147Google Scholar
  61. Isaev IM, Mamedova RP, Agzamova MA, Isaev MI (2007) Triterpene glycosides from Astragalus and their genins. LXXV. Sterols and triterpenoids from Astragalus orbiculatus. Chem Nat Compd 43(3):358–359Google Scholar
  62. Isaev IM, Iskenderov DA, Isaev MI (2008) Triterpene glycosides from Astragalus and their genins. LXXVIII. Chemical transformation of cycloartanes.VI. Partial synthesis of cycloadsurgenin. Chem Nat Compd 44(6):732–737Google Scholar
  63. Isaev IM, Iskenderov DA, Isaev MI (2010) Triterpene glycosides and their genins from Astragalus. LXXXIV. Secomacrogenin B, a new 9,10-secocycloartane. Chem Nat Compd 46(1):36–38Google Scholar
  64. Iskenderov DA, Isaev IM, Isaev MI (2008a) Triterpene glycosides from Astragalus and their genins. LXXVII. Cyclomacrogenin B, a new cycloartane triterpenoid. Chem Nat Compd 44(5):621–624Google Scholar
  65. Iskenderov DA, Keneshov BM, Isaev MI (2008b) Triterpene glycosides from Astragalus and their genins. LXXVI. Glycosides from A. sieversianus. Chem Nat Compd 44(3):319–323Google Scholar
  66. Iskenderov DA, Isaev IM, Isaev MI (2009a) Triterpene glycosides from Astragalus and their genins. LXXXII. Cyclomacroside B, a new glycoside. Chem Nat Compd 45(4):511–513Google Scholar
  67. Iskenderov DA, Isaev IM, Isaev MI (2009b) Triterpene glycosides from Astragalus and their genins. LXXX. Cyclomacroside D, a new bisdesmoside. Chem Nat Compd 45(1):55–58Google Scholar
  68. Iskenderov DA, Isaev IM, Isaev MI (2009c) Triterpene glycosides from Astragalus and their genins. LXXIX. Structure of cyclomacroside C. Chem Nat Compd 45(1):132–134Google Scholar
  69. Iskenderov DA, Isaev IM, Isaev MI (2009d) Triterpene glycosides from Astragalus and their genins. LXXXIII. Structure of cyclomacroside A. Chem Nat Compd 45(5):656–659Google Scholar
  70. Iskenderov DA, Isaev IM, Isaev MI (2010) Triterpene glycosides from Astragalus and their genins. LXXXV. Structure of cyclomacroside E. Chem Nat Compd 46(2):250–253Google Scholar
  71. Jalsrai A, Grecksch G, Becker A (2010) Evaluation of the effects of Astragalus mongholicus Bunge saponin extract on central nervous system functions. J Ethnopharmacol 131(3):544–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Jan S, Abbaskhan A, Musharraf SG, Sattar SA, Samreen SR, Resayes SI, Al-Othman ZA, Al-Majid AM, Choudhary MI, Rahman AU (2011) Three new cycloartane triterpenoids from Astragalus bicuspis. Planta Med 77(16):1829–1834Google Scholar
  73. Jeong JS, Lee JH, Lee SH, Kang SS, Jeong CS (2009) Suppressive actions of Astragali radix (AR) ethanol extract and isolated astragaloside I on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric lesions. Biomol Ther 17(1):62–69Google Scholar
  74. Jiang B, Yang Y, Jin H, Shang W, Zhou L, Qian L, Chen M (2008) Astragaloside IV attenuates lipolysis and improves insulin resistance induced by TNF alpha in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Phytother Res 22(11):1434–1439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kim JS, Yean MH, Lee EJ, Jung HS, Lee JY, Kim YJ, Kang SS (2008) Two new cycloartane saponins from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus. Chem Pharm Bull 56(1):105–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kong XH, Niu YB, Song XM, Zhao DD, Wang J, Wu XL, Zhang R, Mei QB (2012) Astragaloside II induces osteogenic activities of osteoblasts through the bone morphogenetic protein-2/MAPK and Smad1/5/8 pathways. Int J Mol Med 29(6):1090–1098PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Krasteva I, Nikolova I, Danchev N, Nikolov S (2004a) Phytochemical analysis of ethyl acetate extract from Astragalus corniculatus Bieb. and brain antihypoxic activity. Acta Pharm 54(2):151–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Krasteva IN, Toshkova RA, Nikolov SD (2004b) Protective effect of Astragalus corniculatus saponins against myeloid Graffi tumour in hamsters. Phytother Res 18(3):255–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Krasteva I, Nikolov S, Kaloga M, Mayer G (2006) Triterpenoid saponins from Astragalus corniculatus. Z Naturforsch B 61(9):1166–1169Google Scholar
  80. Krasteva I, Nikolov S, Kaloga M, Mayer G (2007) A new saponin lactone from Astragalus corniculatus. Nat Prod Res 21(10):941–945PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Krasteva I, Momekov G, Zdraveva P, Konstantinov S, Nikolov S (2008) Antiproliferative effects of a flavonoid and saponins from Astragalus hamosus against human tumor cell lines. Pharmacog Mag 4(16):269–272Google Scholar
  82. Kuang H, Okada Y, Yang B, Tian Z, Okuyama T (2009) Secocycloartane triterpenoidal saponins from the leaves of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge. Helv Chim Acta 92(5):950–958Google Scholar
  83. Kuang HX, Wang QH, Yang BY, Wang ZB, Okada Y, Okuyama T (2011) Huangqiyenins G-J, four new 9,10-secocycloartane (=9,19-cyclo-9,10-secolanostane) triterpenoidal saponins from Astragalus membranaceus Bunge leaves. Helv Chim Acta 94(12):2239–2247Google Scholar
  84. Lambert E, Faizal A, Geelen D (2011) Modulation of triterpene saponin production: in vitro cultures, elicitation, and metabolic engineering. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 164(2):220–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Law PC, Auyeung KK, Chan LY, Ko JK (2012) Astragalus saponins downregulate vascular endothelial growth factor under cobalt chloride-stimulated hypoxia in colon cancer cells. BMC Compl Alt Med 12:160Google Scholar
  86. Li HB, Ge YK, Zhang L, Zheng XX (2006) Astragaloside IV improved barrier dysfunction induced by acute high glucose in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Life Sci 79(12):1186–1193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Li WZ, Li WP, Zhang W, Yin YY, Sun XX, Zhou SS, Xu XQ, Tao CR (2011) Protective effect of extract of Astragalus on learning and memory impairments and neurons’ apoptosis induced by glucocorticoids in 12-month-old male mice. Anat Rec (Hoboken) 294(6):1003–1014Google Scholar
  88. Li M, Qu YZ, Zhao ZW, Wu SX, Liu YY, Wei XY, Gao L, Gao GD (2012) Astragaloside IV protects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury correlating to suppression of neutrophils adhesion-related molecules. Neurochem Int 60(5):458–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Luo Y, Qin Z, Hong Z, Zhang X, Ding D, Fu JH, Zhang WD, Chen J (2004) Astragaloside IV protects against ischemic brain injury in a murine model of transient focal ischemia. Neurosci Lett 363(3):218–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Lv L, Wu SY, Wang GF, Zhang JJ, Pang JX, Liu ZQ, Xu W, Wu SG, Rao JJ (2010) Effect of astragaloside IV on hepatic glucose-regulating enzymes in diabetic mice induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin. Phytother Res 24(2):219–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Mamedova RP, Isaev MI (2004) Triterpenoids from Astragalus plants. A review. Chem Nat Compd 40(4):303–357Google Scholar
  92. Mamedova RP, Agzamova MA, Isaev MI (2005) Triterpene glycosides from Astragalus and their genins. LXXI. Cycloorbicoside D, a new glycoside from Astragalus orbiculatus. Chem Nat Compd 41(4):429–431Google Scholar
  93. Mamedova RP, Agzamova MA, Turgunov KK, Tozhiboev A, Tashkhodzhaev B, Isaev MI (2006) Triterpene glycosides of Astragalus and their genins. LXXII. X-ray crystal structure of cycloorbicoside D. Chem Nat Compd 42(4):501–502Google Scholar
  94. Mitaine-Offer AC, Miyamoto T, Semmar N, Jay M, Lacaille-Dubois MA (2006) A new oleanane glycoside from the roots of Astragalus caprinus. Magn Reson Chem 44(7):713–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Mitcheva M, Kondeva-Burdina M, Vitcheva V, Krasteva I, Nikolov S (2008) Effect of purified saponin mixture from Astragalus corniculatus on toxicity models in isolated rat hepatocytes. Pharm Biol 46(12):866–870Google Scholar
  96. Motomura K, Fujiwara Y, Kiyota N, Tsurushima K, Takeya M, Nohara T, Nagai R, Ikeda T (2009) Astragalosides isolated from the root of astragalus radix inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end products. J Agric Food Chem 57(17):7666–7672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15(3):473–497Google Scholar
  98. Nalbantsoy A, Nesil T, Erden S, Calış I, Bedir E (2011) Adjuvant effects of Astragalus saponins macrophyllosaponin B and astragaloside VII. J Ethnopharmacol 134(3):897–903PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Nalbantsoy A, Nesil T, Yılmaz-Dilsiz O, Aksu G, Khan S, Bedir E (2012) Evaluation of the immunomodulatory properties in mice and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of cycloartane type saponins from Astragalus species. J Ethnopharmacol 139(2):574–581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Naubeev TK, Uteniyazov KK (2007) Structure of cyclochivinoside C from Astragalus chivensis. Chem Nat Compd 43(5):560–562Google Scholar
  101. Naubeev TK, Uteniyazov KK, Kachala VV, Shashkov AS (2007a) Cyclochivinoside B from the aerial part of Astragalus chivensis. Chem Nat Compd 43(2):166–169Google Scholar
  102. Naubeev TK, Uteniyazov KK, Kachala VV, Shashkov AS (2007b) Cycloartanes from Astragalus flexus. Chem Nat Compd 43(3):360Google Scholar
  103. Naubeev TK, Uteniyazov KK, Tlegenov RT, Uteniyazov KU (2008) Structure of cyclochivinoside D from the above-ground part of the plant Astragalus chivensis. Ozbekiston Kimyo Jurnali 2:29–33Google Scholar
  104. Naubeev TK, Uteniyazov KK, Isaev MI (2011) Triterpene glycosides from Astragalus and their genins. LXXXVIII. Cycloascidoside A, a new bisdesmoside of cycloasgenin C. Chem Nat Compd 47(2):250–253Google Scholar
  105. Navarrete A, Arrieta J, Terrones L, Abou-Gazar H, Calis I (2005) Gastroprotective effect of astragaloside IV: role of prostaglandins, sulfhydryls and nitric oxide. J Pharm Pharmacol 57(8):1059–1064PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Ozipek M, Dönmez AA, Caliş I, Brun R, Rüedi P, Tasdemir D (2005) Leishmanicidal cycloartane-type triterpene glycosides from Astragalus oleifolius. Phytochemistry 66(10):1168–1173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Perrone A, Masullo M, Bassarello C, Bloise E, Hamed A, Nigro P, Pizza C, Piacente S (2008) Unusual cycloartane glycosides from Astragalus eremophilus. Tetrahedron 64(22):5061–5071Google Scholar
  108. Pistelli L (2002) Secondary metabolites of genus Astragalus: structure and biological activity. In: Rahman AU (ed) Studies in natural products chemistry (Bioactive Natural Products, part H). Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 443–545Google Scholar
  109. Pistelli L, Bertoli A, Lepori E, Morelli I, Panizzi L (2002) Antimicrobial and antifungal activity of crude extracts and isolated saponins from Astragalus verrucosus. Fitoterapia 73(4):336–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Polat E, Caliskan-Alankus O, Perrone A, Piacente S, Bedir E (2009) Cycloartane-type glycosides from Astragalus amblolepis. Phytochemistry 70(5):628–634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Polat E, Bedir E, Perrone A, Piacente S, Alankus-Caliskan O (2010) Triterpenoid saponins from Astragalus wiedemannianus Fischer. Phytochemistry 71(5–6):658–662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Qi H, Wei L, Han Y, Zhang Q, Lau AS, Rong J (2010) Proteomic characterization of the cellular response to chemopreventive triterpenoid astragaloside IV in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Int J Oncol 36(3):725–735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Qiu LH, Xie XJ, Zhang BQ (2010) Astragaloside IV improves homocysteine-induced acute phase endothelial dysfunction via antioxidation. Biol Pharm Bull 33(4):641–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Qu YZ, Li M, Zhao YL, Zhao ZW, Wei XY, Liu JP, Gao L, Gao GD (2009) Astragaloside IV attenuates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced increase in permeability of the blood-brain barrier in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 606(1–3):137–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Radwan MM, El-Sebakhy NA, Asaad AM, Toaima SM, Kingston DGI (2004) Kahiricosides II-V, cycloartane glycosides from an Egyptian collection of Astragalus kahiricus. Phytochemistry 65(21):2909–2913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Raskin I (2002) Plants and pharmaceuticals in the 21st century. In: Vassil I (ed) Proceedings of the 10th IAPTC&B congress - plant biotechnology y 2002 and beyond, London, pp 83–95Google Scholar
  117. Rios J, Waterman P (1997) A review of the pharmacology and toxicology of Astragalus. Phytother Res 11(6):411–418Google Scholar
  118. Savran T, Gülcemal D, Masullo M, Karayıldırım T, Polat E, Piacente S, Alankuş-Çalışkan Ö (2012) Cycloartane Glycosides from Astragalus erinaceus. Rec Nat Prod 6(3):230–236Google Scholar
  119. Semmar N, Tomofumi M, Mrabet Y, Lacaille-Dubois MA (2010) Two new acylated tridesmosidic saponins from Astragalus armatus. Helv Chim Acta 93(5):870–876Google Scholar
  120. Sevimli-Gür C, Onbaşılar I, Atilla P, Genç R, Cakar N, Deliloğlu-Gürhan I, Bedir E (2011) In vitro growth stimulatory and in vivo wound healing studies on cycloartane-type saponins of Astragalus genus. J Ethnopharmacol 134(3):844–850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Shang L, Qu Z, Sun L, Wang Y, Liu F, Wang S, Gao H, Jiang F (2011) Astragaloside IV inhibits adenovirus replication and apoptosis in A549 cells in vitro. J Pharm Pharmacol 63(5):688–694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Simeonova RL, Vitcheva VB, Kondeva-Burdina MS, Krasteva IN, Nikolov SD, Mitcheva MK (2010) Effect of purified saponin mixture from Astragalus corniculatus on enzyme- and non-enzyme-induced lipid peroxidation in liver microsomes from spontaneously hypertensive rats and normotensive rats. Phytomedicine 17(5):346–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Sinclair S (1998) Chinese herbs: a clinical review of Astragalus, Ligusticum and Schizandrae. Altern Med Rev 3(5):338–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Song Y, Yang J, Bai WL, Ji WY (2011) Antitumor and immunoregulatory effects of Astragalus on nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vivo and in vitro. Phytother Res 25(6):909–915PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Su CC, Chiou TL, Chan MH, Lin JG (2009) Astragaloside IV increases MMP-2 mRNA and protein expression in human lung cancer A549 cells. Mol Med Rep 2(1):107–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Sukhina IA, Mamedova RP, Agzamova MA, Isaev MI (2007) Triterpene glucosides of Astragalus and their genins. LXXIV. Cyclotrisectoside, the first trisdesmoside of cyclocephalogenin. Chem Nat Compd 43(2):159–161Google Scholar
  127. Sun LM, Wang XL, Deng WL, Ding LS, Peng SL (2011) Chemical constituents from Astragalus ernestii. Zhongguo Tianran Yaowu 9(1):38–41Google Scholar
  128. Tabanca N, Bedir E, Alankus-Caliskan O, Khan IA (2005) Cycloartane triterpene glycosides from the roots of Astragalus gilvus Boiss. Biochem Syst Ecol 33(10):1067–1070Google Scholar
  129. Tape R, Budzikiewicz H, Ionkova I, Alfermann W (1994) Triterpene glycosides from transformed root cultures of Astragalus mongholicus Bge. Spectroscopy 12(1):1–8Google Scholar
  130. Tin MMY, Cho CH, Chan K, James AE, Ko JKS (2007) Astragalus saponins induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in human colon cancer cells and tumor xenograft. Carcinogenesis 28(6):1347–1355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Toshkova RA, Krasteva IN, Nikolov SD (2008) Immunorestoration and augmentation of mitogen lymphocyte response in Graffi tumor bearing hamsters by purified saponin mixture from Astragalus corniculatus. Phytomedicine 15(10):876–881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Tsaruk AV, Iskenderov DA, Agzamova MA, Khushbaktova ZA, Syrov VN, Isaev MI (2010) Isolation and influence of cycloartane glycosides cycloorbicoside G and cyclosieversioside A on metabolic processes in myocardium. Pharm Chem J 44(1):10–13Google Scholar
  133. Turgut-Kara N, Ari S (2011) Analysis of elicitor inducible cytochrome P450 induction in Astragalus chrysochlorus cells. Plant Omics 4(5):264–269Google Scholar
  134. Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Mooze DM, Valeutine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA (1972) Flora Europaea (2). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 108–124Google Scholar
  135. Valev S (1976) Astragalus. In: Yordanov D (ed) Flora Republicae Popularis Bulgaricae VI. Aedibus Acad Sci Bulgaricae, Sofia, p p135Google Scholar
  136. Verotta L, El-Sebakhy N (2001) Cycloartane and oleanane saponins from Astragalus sp. Studies in natural products chemistry (Bioactive Natural Products, Part F). Elsevier Science, Karachi, pp 179–234Google Scholar
  137. Verotta L, Guerrini M, El-Sebakhy NA, Assad AM, Toaima SM, Radwan MM, Luo YD, Pezzuto JM (2002) Cycloartane and oleanane saponins from Egyptian Astragalus spp. as modulators of lymphocyte proliferation. Planta Med 68(11):986–994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Verpoorte R (2000) Pharmacognosy in the new millennium: leadfinding and biotechnology. J Pharm Pharmacol 52(3):253–262Google Scholar
  139. Vitcheva V, Simeonova R, Krasteva I, Nikolov S, Mitcheva M (2013) Protective effects of a purified saponin mixture from Astragalus corniculatus Bieb. in vivo hepatotoxicity models. Phytother Res 27(25):731–736PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Wang S, Li J, Huang H, Gao W, Zhuang C, Li B, Zhou P, Kong D (2009) Anti-hepatitis B virus activities of astragaloside IV isolated from radix Astragali. Biol Pharm Bull 32(1):132–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Wink M, Alfermann W, Franke R, Wetterauer B, Distl M, Windhövel J, Krohn O, Fuss E, Garden H, Mohagheghzadeh A, Wildi E, Ripplinger P (2005) Sustainable bioproduction of phytochemicals by plant in vitro cultures: anticancer agents. Plant Genet Res 3:90–100Google Scholar
  142. Xu XL, Ji H, Gu SY, Shao Q, Huang QJ, Cheng YP (2007) Modification of alterations in cardiac function and sarcoplasmic reticulum by astragaloside IV in myocardial injury in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol 568(1–3):203–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Xu XL, Chen XJ, Ji H, Li P, Bian YY, Yang D, Xu JD, Bian ZP, Zhang JN (2008) Astragaloside IV improved intracellular calcium handling in hypoxia-reoxygenated cardiomyocytes via the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase. Pharmacology 81(4):325–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Yalcin FN, Piacente S, Perrone A, Capasso A, Duman H, Calis I (2012) Cycloartane glycosides from Astragalus stereocalyx Bornm. Phytochemistry 73(1):119–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Yang B, Ji C, Chen X, Cui L, Bi Z, Wan Y, Xu J (2011) Protective effect of astragaloside IV against matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in ultraviolet-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts. Arch Pharm Res 34(9):1553–1560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Yang J, Li J, Lu J, Zhang Y, Zhu Z, Wan H (2012) Synergistic protective effect of astragaloside IV-tetramethylpyrazine against cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury induced by transient focal ischemia. J Ethnopharmacol 140(1):64–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Yendo AC, de Costa F, Gosmann G, Fett-Neto AG (2010) Production of plant bioactive triterpenoid saponins: elicitation strategies and target genes to improve yields. Mol Biotechnol 46(1):94–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Yesilada E, Bedir E, Caliş I, Takaishi Y, Ohmoto Y (2005) Effects of triterpene saponins from Astragalus species on in vitro cytokine release. J Ethnopharmacol 96(1–2):71–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Yin X, Zhang Y, Yu J, Zhang P, Shen J, Qiu J, Wu H, Zhu X (2006) The antioxidative effects of astragalus saponin I protect against development of early diabetic nephropathy. J Pharmacol Sci 101(2):166–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Yin YY, Li WP, Gong HL, Zhu FF, Li WZ, Wu GC (2010) Protective effect of astragaloside on focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Am J Chin Med 38(3):517–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Yu J, Zhang Y, Sun S, Shen J, Qiu J, Yin X, Yin H, Jiang S (2006) Inhibitory effects of astragaloside IV on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 84(6):579–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Yu QT, Li P; Bi ZM, Luo J, Gao, Xiao D (2007) Two new saponins from the aerial part of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Chin Chem Lett 18(5):554-556Google Scholar
  153. Yuan W, Zhang Y, Ge Y, Yan M, Kuang R, Zheng X (2009) Astragaloside IV inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in rat vascular smooth muscle cells under high glucose concentration in vitro. Planta Med 74(10):1259–1264Google Scholar
  154. Yuan X, Sun S, Wang S, Sun Y (2011) Effects of astragaloside IV on IFN-gamma level and prolonged airway dysfunction in a murine model of chronic asthma. Planta Med 77(4):328–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Yung LY, Lam WS, Ho MK, Hu Y, Ip FC, Pang H, Chin AC, Harley CB, Ip NY, Wong YH (2012) Astragaloside IV and cycloastragenol stimulate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase in multiple cell types. Planta Med 78(2):115–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Zhang WD, Chen H, Zhang C, Liu RH, Li HL, Chen HZ (2006) Astragaloside IV from Astragalus membranaceus shows cardioprotection during myocardial ischemia in vivo and in vitro. Planta Med 72(1):4–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Zhang ZC, Li SJ, Yang YZ, Chen RZ, Ge JB, Chen HZ (2007) Effect of astragaloside on cardiomyocyte apoptosis in murine coxsackievirus B3 myocarditis. J Asian Nat Prod Res 9(2):145–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Zhang L, Liu Q, Lu L, Zhao X, Gao X, Wang Y (2011a) Astragaloside IV stimulates angiogenesis and increases hypoxia-inducible factor-1α accumulation via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 338(2):485–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Zhang N, Wang XH, Mao SL, Zhao F (2011b) Astragaloside IV improves metabolic syndrome and endothelium dysfunction in fructose-fed rats. Molecules 16(5):3896–3907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Zhang Y, Hu G, Li S, Li ZH, Lam CO, Hong SJ, Kwan YW, Chan SW, Leung GP, Lee SM (2012) Pro-angiogenic activity of astragaloside IV in HUVECs in vitro and zebrafish in vivo. Mol Med Rep 5(3):805–811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Zhao Z, Wang W, Wang F, Zhao K, Han Y, Xu W, Tang L (2009) Effects of astragaloside IV on heart failure in rats. Chin Med. doi: 10.1186/1749-8546-4-6 Google Scholar
  162. Zheng R, Deng Y, Chen Y, Fan J, Zhang M, Zhong Y, Zhu R, Wang L (2012) Astragaloside IV attenuates complement membranous attack complex induced podocyte injury through the MAPK pathway. Phytother Res 26(6):892–898PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Zhu SQ, Qi L, Rui YF, Li RX, He XP, Xie ZP (2008) Astragaloside IV inhibits spontaneous synaptic transmission and synchronized Ca2+ oscillations on hippocampal neurons. Acta Pharmacol Sin 29(1):57–64PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iliana Ionkova
    • 1
  • Aleksandar Shkondrov
    • 1
  • Ilina Krasteva
    • 1
  • Todor Ionkov
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of PharmacyMedical University of SofiaSofiaBulgaria
  2. 2.Department of Automation, Faculty of AutomaticsTechnical University of SofiaSofiaBulgaria

Personalised recommendations