, Volume 56, Issue 1, pp 354–365 | Cite as

Photosynthetic efficiency in sun and shade plants

  • S. Mathur
  • L. Jain
  • A. Jajoo


Photosynthesis is amongst the plant cell functions that are highly sensitive to any type of changes. Sun and shade conditions are prevalent in fields as well as dense forests. Dense forests face extreme sun and shade conditions, and plants adapt themselves accordingly. Sun flecks cause changes in plant metabolic processes. In the field, plants have to face high light intensity and survive under such conditions. Sun and shade type of plants develops a respective type of chloroplasts which help plants to survive and perform photosynthesis under adverse conditions. PSII and Rubisco behave differently under different sun and shade conditions. In this review, morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes under conditions of sun (high light) and shade (low light) on the process of photosynthesis, as well as the tolerance and adaptive mechanisms involved for the same, were summarized.

Additional key words

chlorophyll fluorescence high light low light photosynthesis shade sun 





alternative oxidase


ascorbate peroxidise




cyclic electron flow




chloroplast protein

Cyt b/f

cytochrome b/f




dehydroascorbate reductase


electron rate


minimal fluorescence


maximal fluorescence


ferredoxin-plastoquinone reductase


stomatal conductance


high light


light-compensation point


low light


light-saturation point


long-term response




monodehydroascorbate reductase


nonphotochemical quenching


phases of Chl a fluorescence induction curve


photosynthetic electron transport


proton gradient regulation mutant


phosphorylated LHCII


net CO2 assimilation rates






proportion of open PSII reaction centers


reaction center


reactive oxygen species


soluble sugars


superoxide dismutase


violaxanthin de-epoxidase


variable fluorescence at 2 ms


maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry


probability of electron transport from reduced QA to QB


probability of electron transport from the PSII to the PSI acceptor side


zeaxanthin epoxidase


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© The Institute of Experimental Botany 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Life ScienceDevi Ahilya UniversityIndoreIndia

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