, Volume 52, Issue 2, pp 161–178 | Cite as

Global warming: causes and impacts on agroecosystems productivity and food security with emphasis on cassava comparative advantage in the tropics/subtropics



Earth’s climate has experienced notable changes during the past 50–70 years when global surface temperature has risen by 0.8°C during the 20th century. This was a consequence of the rise in the concentration of biogenic gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and ozone) in the atmosphere that contribute, along with water vapor, to the so-called ‘greenhouse effect’. Most of the emissions of greenhouse gases have been, and still are, the product of human activities, namely, the excessive use of fossil energy, deforestations in the humid tropics with associated poor land use-management, and wide-scale degradation of soils under crop cultivation and animal/pasture ecosystems. General Circulation Models predict that atmospheric CO2 concentration will probably reach 700 μmol(CO2) mol−1. This can result in rise of Earth’s temperature from 1.5 to over 5°C by the end of this century. This may instigate 0.60–1.0 m rise in sea level, with impacts on coastal lowlands across continents. Crop modeling predicts significant changes in agricultural ecosystems. The mid- and high-latitude regions might reap the benefits of warming and CO2 fertilization effects via increasing total production and yield of C3 plants coupled with greater water-use efficiencies. The tropical/subtropical regions will probably suffer the worst impacts of global climate changes. These impacts include wide-scale socioeconomic changes, such as degradation and losses of natural resources, low agricultural production, and lower crop yields, increased risks of hunger, and above all waves of human migration and dislocation. Due to inherent cassava tolerance to heat, water stress, and poor soils, this crop is highly adaptable to warming climate. Such a trait should enhance its role in food security in the tropics and subtropics.

Additional key words

agriculture animal husbandry carbon dioxide climate change crop forest greenhouse gas modeling photosynthesis soil temperature water stress wild Manihot species yield 



intercellular CO2 concentration


CO2 concentration




Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment


harvest index


stomatal conductance


International Benchmark Sites Network for Agrotechnology Transfer


Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change


leaf area index


phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase


photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency


leaf net photosynthetic rate


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acock, B., Allen, L.H.: Crop responses to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations. — In: Strain B.R., Cure J.D. (ed.): Direct Effects of Increasing Carbon Dioxide on Vegetation. Pp 33–97. US Department of Energy, Washington 1985.Google Scholar
  2. Acock, B., Acock, M.C., Pasternak, D.: Interactions of CO2 enrichment and temperature on carbohydrate production and accumulation in muskmelon leaves. — J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 115: 525–529, 1990.Google Scholar
  3. Affholder, F., Tittonell, P., Corbeels, M. et al.: Ad hoc modeling in agronomy: what have we learned in the last 15 years? — Agron. J. 104: 735–748, 2012.Google Scholar
  4. Beaumont, L.J., Pitman, A., Perkins, S. et al.: Impacts of climate change on the world’s most exceptional ecoregions. — P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108: 2306–2311, 2011.Google Scholar
  5. Blanc, E.: The Impact of Climate Change on Crop Production in Sub-Saharan Africa — Ph.D. Thesis. University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand 2011.Google Scholar
  6. Blanc, E.: The impact of climate change on crop yields in Sub-Saharan Africa. — Am. J. Climate Change 1: 1–13, 2012.Google Scholar
  7. CIAT: Cassava Program Annual Report for 1987–1989. Pp 621. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali 1993Google Scholar
  8. CIAT: Cassava Annual Report. Pp 292. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali 1992.Google Scholar
  9. CIAT: January 2013 update on cassava model. Pp. 13. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali 2013.Google Scholar
  10. Cock, J.H., El-Sharkawy, M.A.: Physiological characteristics for cassava selection. — Exp. Agr. 24: 443–448, 1988a.Google Scholar
  11. Cock, J.H., El-Sharkawy, M.A.: The physiological response of cassava to stress. — Proceedings of the 7th Symposium of the International Society of Tropical Root and Tuber Crops. Pp. 451–462. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Paris. 1988b.Google Scholar
  12. Cock, J.H., Franklin, D., Sandoval, G., Juri, P.: Ideal cassava plant for maximum yield. — Crop Sci. 19: 271–279, 1979.Google Scholar
  13. Connor, D.J., Cock, J.H.: Response of cassava to water shortage. II. Canopy dynamics. — Field Crops. Res. 4: 285–296, 1981.Google Scholar
  14. Dale, V.H., Houghton, R.A., Grainger, A., Lugo, A.E., Brown, S.: Emissions of greenhouse gases from tropical deforestation and subsequent uses of the land. — In: Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Pp. 215–260. National Academy Press, Washington D.C. 1993.Google Scholar
  15. Da Matta, F.M., Grandis, A., Arenque, B.C., Buckeridge, M.S.: Impacts of climate changes on crop physiology and food quality. — Food Res. Int. 43: 1814–1823, 2010.Google Scholar
  16. Dasgupta, S., Laplante, B., Murray, S., Wheeler, D.: Sea-Level Rise and Storm Surges. — Policy Research Working Paper 4901. The World Bank — Development Research Group — Environment and Energy Team, Washington 2009.Google Scholar
  17. Eamus, D.: The interaction of rising CO2 and temperatures with water use efficiency. — Plant Cell Environ. 14: 843–852, 1991.Google Scholar
  18. Easterling, W.E., Aggarwal, P.K., Batima, P. et al.: Food fibre and forest products. — In: Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Paluitikof, J. P. et al. (ed.): Climate Change: 2007. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Pp. 273–313. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2007.Google Scholar
  19. El-Shamy, M.E., Seierstad, I.A., Sorteberg, A.: Impacts of climate change on Blue Nile flows using bias-corrected GCM scenarios. — Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 13: 551–565, 2009.Google Scholar
  20. El-Sharkawy, H., Rashed, H., Rached, I.: Climate Change: The Impacts of Sea Level Rise on Egypt. 45th ISOCARP Congress. Pp. 11. Porto 2009.Google Scholar
  21. El-Sharkawy, M.A.: Drought-tolerant cassava for Africa, Asia, and Latin America. — Bioscience 43: 441–451, 1993.Google Scholar
  22. El-Sharkawy, M.A.: Cassava biology and physiology. — Plant Mol. Biol. 56: 481–501, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. El-Sharkawy, M.A.: How can calibrated research-based models be improved for use as a tool in identifying genes controlling crop tolerance to environmental stresses in the era of genomics — from an experimentalist’s perspective. — Photosynthetica 43: 161–176, 2005.Google Scholar
  24. El-Sharkawy, M.A.: International research on cassava photosynthesis, productivity, eco-physiology, and responses to environmental stresses in the tropics. — Photosynthetica 44: 481–512, 2006.Google Scholar
  25. El-Sharkawy, M.A.: Pioneering research on C4 photosynthesis: Implications for crop water relations and productivity in comparison to C3 cropping systems. — J. Food Agric. Environ. 7: 468–484, 2009.Google Scholar
  26. El-Sharkawy, M.A.: Cassava: physiological mechanisms and plant traits underlying tolerance to prolonged drought and their application for breeding improved cultivars in the seasonally dry and semiarid tropics. — In: DaMatta, F.M. (ed.): Ecophysiology of Tropical Tree Crops. Pp 71–110. Nova Science Publishers, New York 2010.Google Scholar
  27. El-Sharkawy, M.A.: Overview: Early history of crop growth and photosynthesis modeling. — BioSystems 103: 205–211, 2011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. El-Sharkawy, M.A.: Stress-tolerant cassava: the role of integrative ecophysiology-breeding research in crop improvement. — Open J. Soil Sci. 2:162–186, 2012.Google Scholar
  29. El-Sharkawy, M.A., Cock, J.H.: C3-C4 intermediate photosynthetic characteristics of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). I. Gas exchange. — Photosynth. Res. 12: 219–235, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. El-Sharkawy, M.A., de Tafur, S.M., Cadavid, L.F.: Potential photosynthesis of cassava as affected by growth conditions. — Crop Sci. 32: 1336–1342, 1992a.Google Scholar
  31. El-Sharkawy, M.A., de Tafur, S.M., Cadavid, L.F.: Photosynthesis of cassava and its relation to crop productivity. — Photosynthetica 28: 431–438, 1993.Google Scholar
  32. El-Sharkawy, M.A., de Tafur, S.M., Lopez, Y.: Cassava productivity, photosynthesis, ecophysiology, and response to environmental stresses in the tropics: a multidisciplinary approach to crop improvement and sustainable production. — In: Ospina, B., Ceballos, H. (ed.): Cassava in the Third Millenium: Modern Production, Processing, Use, and Marketing Systems. Pp. 29–88. CIAT, Cali, Colombia 2012a.Google Scholar
  33. El-Sharkawy, M.A., de Tafur, S.M, Lopez, Y.: Ecophysiological research for breeding improved cassava cultivars in favorable and stressful environments in the tropical/subtropical bio-systems. — Environ. Res. J. 6: 143–211, 2012b.Google Scholar
  34. El-Sharkawy, M.A., [ptde] Tafur, S.M., Lopez, Y.: Integrative ecophysiological research for breeding improved cassava cultivars in favorable and stressful environments in the tropical/subtropical bio-systems. — In: Gorawala, P., Mandhatri, S. (ed.): Agricultural Research Updates, Vol. 4. Pp 1–76. Nova Science Publishers, New York 2012c.Google Scholar
  35. El-Sharkawy, M.A., Hernandez, A.D., Hershey, C.: Yield stability of cassava during prolonged mid-season water stress. — Exp. Agr. 28: 165–174, 1992b.Google Scholar
  36. El-Sharkawy, M.A., Cock, J.H., Lynam, J.K., Hernández, A.D., Cadavid, L.F.: Relationships between biomass, root-yield and single-leaf photosynthesis in field-grown Cassava. — Field Crop Res. 25: 183–201, 1990.Google Scholar
  37. El-Sharkawy, M.A., Lopez, Y., Bernal, L.M.: Genotypic variations in activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and correlations with leaf photosynthetic characteristics and crop productivity of cassava grown in low-land seasonally-dry tropics. — Photosynthetica 46: 238–247, 2008.Google Scholar
  38. Erbs, M., Manderscheid, R., Weigel, H.J.: A combined rain shelter and Free-Air CO2 Enrichment System to study climate change impacts on plants in the field. — Methods Ecol. Evol. 3: 81–88, 2012.Google Scholar
  39. Evans, J.R.: Photosynthesis and nitrogen relationships in leaves of C3 plants. — Oecologia 78: 9–19, 1989.Google Scholar
  40. FAO: Adaptation to climate change in agriculture, forestry and fisheries: perspective, framework and priorities. to climate change2007.pdf, 2007.
  41. Fermont, A.M.: Cassava and Soil Fertility in Intensifying Smallholder Farming Systems of East Africa. — Ph.D. Thesis. Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen 2009.Google Scholar
  42. Fernandez, M.D., Tezara, W., Rengifo, E., Herrera, A.: Lack of downregulation of photosynthesis in a tropical root crop, cassava, grown under an elevated CO2 concentration. — Funct. Plant Biol. 29: 805–814, 2002.Google Scholar
  43. Fleisher, D. H., Barnaby, J., Sicher, R et al.: Effects of elevated CO2 and cyclic drought on potato under varying radiation regimes. — Agr. Forest Meteorol. 171–172: 270–280, 2013.Google Scholar
  44. Fleisher, D., Timlin, D., Reddy, et al.: Effects of CO2 and temperature on crops: lesson from SPAR growth chambers. — In: Hillel, D., Rosenzweig, C. (ed.): Handbook of Climate Change and Agroecosystems: Impacts, Adaptation, and Mitigation. Pp. 55–86. Imperial College Press, London 2011.Google Scholar
  45. Gabriel, L.F., Streck, N.A., Uhlmann, L.O., da Silva, M.R., da Silva, S.D.: [Climate change and its effects on cassava crop]. — Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental 18: 90–98, 2014. [In Portuguese]Google Scholar
  46. Girvetz, E.H., Zganjar, C., Raber, G.T. et al.: Applied climatechange analysis: the climate Wizard Tool. — PLoS ONE: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008320, 2009.Google Scholar
  47. Godwin, D., Ritchie, J.T., Singh, U., Hunt, L.A.: A User’s Guide to CERES-Wheat-V2.10. 2nd. Edition. Pp 95. International Fertilizer Development Center, Muscle Shoals 1989.Google Scholar
  48. Godwin, D., Singh, U., Ritchie, J.T., Alocilja, E.C.A.: User ’s Guide to CERES-Rice. Pp 131. International Fertilizer Development Center, Muscle Shoals 1993.Google Scholar
  49. Hershey, C.H., Alvarez, E., Aye, T.M. et al.: Eco-efficient interventions to support cassava’s multiple roles in improving the lives of smallholders. — In: Hershey, C. H., Neate, P. (ed.): Eco-Efficiency: From Vision to Reality. Pp 135–160. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali 2012.Google Scholar
  50. Hertel, T.W., Lobell, D.B.: Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in Rich and Poor Countries: Current Modeling Practice and Potential for Empirical Contributioins. — GTAP Working Paper No.72, Purdue University, West Lafayette 2012.Google Scholar
  51. Hillel, D., Rosenzweig, C. (ed.).: Handbook of Climate Change and Agroecosystems: Impacts, Adaptation, and Mitigation. ICP Series on Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation, and Mitigation Vol.1. Pp 440. Imperial College Press, London 2011.Google Scholar
  52. Hirose, T., Werger, M.J.A.: Maximizing daily canopy photosynthesis with respect to the leaf nitrogen allocation pattern in the canopy. — Oecologia 72: 520–526, 1987.Google Scholar
  53. Hoogenboom, G., Hunt, T., Jarvis, A. et al.: News Bulletin on the Cassava Modeling Group: Rethinking a Cassava Crop Model. Pp. 12. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali 2012.Google Scholar
  54. Houghton, J. T., Jenkins, G. J., Ephraums, J. J. (ed.).: Climatic Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment. Pp. 364. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1990.Google Scholar
  55. Houghton, R. A.: Carbon. — In: Turner, B. L., Clark, W. C., Kates, R. W et al. (ed.).: The Earth as Transformed by Human Action. Pp 393–408. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1990.Google Scholar
  56. Howeler, R., Lutaladio, N., Thomas, G.: Save and Grow: Cassava: A Guide to Sustainable Production Intensification. Pp. 364. FAO, Rome, 2013.Google Scholar
  57. Hsiang, S. M., Burke, M., Miguel, E.: Quantifying the influence of climate on human conflict. — Science 341: doi: 10.1126/science.1235367, 2013Google Scholar
  58. IBSNAT-International Benchmark Sites Network for Agrotechnology Transfer.: The IBSNAT decade. Pp178. Department of Agronomy and Soil Science, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii, Honolulu 1993.Google Scholar
  59. Idso, K.E., Idso, S.B.: Plant responses to atmospheric CO2 enrichment in the face of environmental constraints: a review of the past 10 years’ research. — Agr. Forest Meteorol. 69: 153–203, 1994.Google Scholar
  60. Idso, S.B., Kimball, B.A.: Effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on photosynthesis, respiration, and growth of sour orange trees. — Plant Physiol. 99: 341–343, 1992.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Idso, S.B., Kimball, B.A.: CO2 enrichment of sour orange trees: 13 years and counting. — Environ. Exp. Bot. 46: 147–153, 2001.Google Scholar
  62. Irving, A.D., Connell, S.D., Russell, B.D.: Restoring coastal plants to improve global carbon storage: reaping what we sow. — PLoS ONE: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018311, 2011.Google Scholar
  63. Jaggard, K.W., Qi, A., Ober, E.S.: Possible changes to arable crop yields by 2050. — Philos. T. R. Soc. B. 365: 2835–2851, 2010.Google Scholar
  64. Jarvis, A., Ramirez-Villegas, J., Campo, B.V.H., Navarro-Racines, C.: Is cassava the answer to African climate change adaptation. — Tropical Plant Biol. 5: 9–29, 2012.Google Scholar
  65. Johnson, S.N., Riegler, M.: Root damage by insects reverses the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on eucalypt seedlings. — PLoS ONE: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079479, 2013.Google Scholar
  66. Jones, C. A., Kiniry, J. R.: CERES-Maize. A Simulation Model of Maize Growth and Development. Pp 194. Texas A&M University Press, College Station 1986.Google Scholar
  67. Jones, J.W., Boote, K.J., Hoogenboom, G., Jagtap, S.S., Wilkerson, G.G.: SOYGRO V5.42: Soybean Crop Growth Simulation Model. Users’ Guide. Pp. 83. Department of Agricultural Engineering and Department of Agronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville 1989.Google Scholar
  68. Jones, P.D., Wigley, T.M.L.: Global warming trends. — Sci. Am. 263: 84–91, 1990.Google Scholar
  69. Jurik, T.W., Weber, J.A., Gates, D.M.: Short-term effects of CO2 on gas exchanges of leaves of bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata) in the field. — Plant Physiol. 75: 1022–1026, 1984.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kamukondiwa, W.: Alternative food crops to adapt to potential climatic change in southern Africa. — Clim. Res. 6: 153–155, 1996.Google Scholar
  71. Kerr, R.A.: Climate change: greenhouse forecasting still cloudy. — Science 276: 1040, 1997.Google Scholar
  72. Kimball, B.A.: Carbon dioxide and agricultural yield. an assemblage and analysis of 430 prior observations. — Agron. J. 75: 779–788, 1983.Google Scholar
  73. Kimball, B.A., Kobayashi, K., Bindi, M.: Responses of agricultural crops to free-air CO2 enrichment. — Adv. Agron. 77: 293–368, 2002.Google Scholar
  74. Kimball, B.A., White, J.W., Wall, G.W., Ottman, M.J.: Infrared-warmed and unwarmed wheat vegetation indices coalesce using canopy-temperature-based growing degree days. — Agron. J. 104: 114–118, 2012.Google Scholar
  75. Kirkham, M. B.: Elevated Carbon Dioxide: Impacts on Soil and Plant Water Relations. Pp. 399. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida 2011.Google Scholar
  76. Knox, J., Hess, T., Daccache, A., Wheeler, T.: Climate change impacts on crop productivity in Africa and South Asia. — Environ. Res. Lett.: doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/3/034032, 2012.Google Scholar
  77. LEISA-ILEIA editorial team: Dealing with climate change. — LEISA Magazine 4: 4–5, 2008.Google Scholar
  78. Lin, W., Ziska, L.H., Namuco, O.S., Bai, K.: The interaction of high temperature and elevated CO2 on photosynthetic acclimation of single leaves of rice in situ. — Physiol. Plantarum 99: 178–184, 1997.Google Scholar
  79. Lobell, D.B., Bruke, M. (ed.): Climate Change and Food Security: Adapting Agriculture to a Warmer World. Pp. 199. Springer Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York 2010.Google Scholar
  80. Lobell, D.B., Schlenker, W., Costa-Roberts, J.: Climate trends and global crop production since 1980. — Science 333: 208–218. 2011.Google Scholar
  81. Long, S.P., Ainsworth, E.A., Leakey, A.D.B., Nösberger, J., Ort, D.R.: Food for thought: lower-than-expected crop yield simulation with rising CO2 concentration. — Science 312: 1918–1921, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lynch, J.P., St.Clair, S.B.: Mineral stress: the missing link in understanding how global climate change will affect plants in real world soils. — Field Crop. Res. 90: 101–115, 2004.Google Scholar
  83. Mathews, R.B., Hunt, L.A.: GUMCAS: a model describing the growth of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). — Field Crop. Res. 36: 69–84, 1994.Google Scholar
  84. Mascarelli, A. L.: A sleeping giant?. — Natur. Rep. Climate Change: doi:10.1038/climate.2009.24, 2009.Google Scholar
  85. McCright, A.M., Dunlap, R.E.: Defeating Kyoto: the conservative movement’s impact on U.S. climate change policy. — Social Problems 50: 348–373, 2003.Google Scholar
  86. Metz, B., Davidson, O.R., Bosch, P.R., Dave, R., Meyer, L.A. (ed.): IPCC: Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007 (AR4). Pp. 1075. Cambridge, UK and New York 2007.Google Scholar
  87. Mitchell, T.D., Jones, P.D.: An improved method of constructing a database of monthly climate observations and associated high-resolution grids. — Int. J. Climatol. 25: 693–712, 2005.Google Scholar
  88. Morgan, J.A.: Growth and canopy carbon dioxide exchange rate of spring wheat as affected by nitrogen status. — Crop Sci. 28: 95–100, 1988.Google Scholar
  89. Nelson G.C., Rosegrant, M.W., Koo, J. et al.: Climate Change — Impact on Agriculture and Costs of Adaptation. — Food Policy Report, Parry, M. L. et al. (ed.): International Food Policy Research Institute. Pp. 30. Washington, DC 2009.Google Scholar
  90. Nord, E.A., Lynch, J.P.: Plant phenology: a critical controller of soil resource acquisition. — J. Exp. Bot. 60, 1927–1937, 2009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Olson, D.M., Dinerstein, E.: The Global 200: priority ecoregions for global conservation. — Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 89: 199–224, 2002.Google Scholar
  92. Parry, M.L.: The implications of climate change for crop yields, global food supply and risk of hunger. — SAT eJournal 4: 1–44, 2007.Google Scholar
  93. Parry, M.L., Rosenzweig, C., Iglesias, A., Livermore, M., Fischer, G.: Effects of climate change on global food production under SRES emissions and socioeconomic scenarios. — Global Environ.Change 14: 53–67, 2004.Google Scholar
  94. Paul, K., Yeoh, H.H.: K m values of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase of cassava cultivars. — Phytochemistry 26: 1965–1967, 1987.Google Scholar
  95. Paul, K., Yeoh, H.H.: Characteristics of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from cassava leaves. — Plant Physiol. Bioch. 26: 615–618, 1988.Google Scholar
  96. Pellet, D., El-Sharkawy, M.A.: Cassava varietal response to phosphorus fertilization. I. Yield, biomass and gas exchange. — Field Crop. Res. 35: 1–11, 1993aGoogle Scholar
  97. Pellet, D., El-Sharkawy, M.A.: Cassava varietal response to phosphorus fertilization. II. Phosphorus uptake and use efficiency. — Field Crop. Res. 35: 13–20, 1993b.Google Scholar
  98. Pellet, D., El-Sharkawy, M.A.: Sink-source relations in cassava: effects of reciprocal grafting on yield and leaf photosynthesis. — Exp. Agr. 30: 359–367, 1994.Google Scholar
  99. Pellet, D., El-Sharkawy, M.A.: Cassava varietal response to fertilization: growth dynamics and implications for cropping sustainability. — Exp. Agr. 33: 353–365, 1997.Google Scholar
  100. Perrow, C.: Why we disagree about climate change: understanding controversy, inaction, and opportunity. — Contemp. Sociol. 39: 46–47, 2010.Google Scholar
  101. Porto, M.C.M., El-Sharkawy, M.A., Cock, J.H., Hernandez, A.D.P., de Cadena, G.: [Growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen use efficiency in maize, beans and cassava subjected to two levels of nitrogen in soil]. — Revista Brasileira de Mandioca 6: 35–47, 1987 [In Portuguese]Google Scholar
  102. Powlson, D.S., Whitmore, A.P., Goulding, K.W.T.: Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change: a critical reexamination to identify the true and the false. — Eur. J. Soil Sci. 62: 42–55, 2011.Google Scholar
  103. Reddy, K.R, Zhao, D.: Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and potassium deficiency on photosynthesis, growth, and biomass partitioning of cotton. — Field Crop. Res. 94: 201–213, 2005.Google Scholar
  104. Ritchie, J.T., Otter, S.: Description and performance of CERES-Wheat: A user-oriented wheat yield model. — In: Willis, W. O. (ed.). ARS Wheat Yield Project. Pp 159–175. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service ARS-38. Washington DC 1985.Google Scholar
  105. Ritchie, J. T., Singh, U., Godwin, D., Hunt, L.: A User’s Guide to CERES-Maize V2.10. Pp. 194. International Fertilizer Development Center, Muscle Shoals 1989.Google Scholar
  106. Rivera, P.C., Khan, T.M.A.: Discovery of the major mechanism of global warming and climate change. — J. Basic Appl. Sci. 8: 59–73, 2012Google Scholar
  107. Roaf, S., Crichton, D., Nicol, F.: Adapting Buildings and Cities for Climate Change, 21st Century Survival Guide. Pp. 385. Elsevier, London 2005.Google Scholar
  108. Rosenthal, D.M., Ort, D.R.: Examining cassava’s potential to enhance food security under climate change. — Trop. Plant Biol. 5: 30–38, 2012.Google Scholar
  109. Rosenthal, D.M., Slattery, R.A., Miller, R.E et al.: Cassava about-FACE: Greater than expected yield stimulation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) by future CO2 levels. — Global Change Biol. 18: 2661–2675, 2012Google Scholar
  110. Rosenzweig, C., Hillel, D.: Potential impacts of climate change on agriculture and food supply. — Consequences 1:, 1995
  111. Rosenzweig, C., Iglesias, A.: The use of crop models for international climate change impact assessment: study design, methodology, and conclusions. — In: Rosenzweig, C., Iglesias, A. (ed.): Implications of Climate Change for International Agriculture: Crop Modeling Study. Pp. 1–44. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC., 1994.Google Scholar
  112. Rosenzweig, C., Parry, M. L., Fischer, G, Frohberg, K.: Climate Change and World Food Supply. Research Report No. 3. Environmental Change Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford 1993.Google Scholar
  113. Saithong, T., Rongsirikul, O., Kalapanulak, S. et al.: Starch biosynthesis in cassava: a genome-based pathway reconstruction and its exploitation in data integration. — BMC Systems Biology 7: 75, 2013.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Sangpenchan, R.: Climate change impacts on cassava production in Northeastern Thailand. — MSc Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 2009.Google Scholar
  115. Sasson, A.: Feeding tomorrow’s world. Pp. 805. UNESCO/CTA, Paris 1990.Google Scholar
  116. Schmidhuber, J., Tubiello, F.N.: Global food security under climate change. — P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104: 19703–19708, 2007.Google Scholar
  117. Shimono, H., Okada, M., Inoue, M. et al.: Diurnal and seasonal variations in stomatal conductance of rice at elevated atmospheric CO2 under fully open-air conditions. — Plant Cell Environ. 33: 322–331, 2010.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Singh, S.K., Badgujar, G., Reddy, V.R., Fleisher, D.H., Bunce, J.A.: Carbon dioxide diffusion across stomata and mesophyll and photo-biochemical processes as affected by growth CO2 and phosphorus nutrition in cotton. — J. Plant Physiol. 170: 801–813, 2013PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Soon, W., Baliunas, S.: Proxy climatic and environmental changes of the past 1000 years. — Climate Res. 23: 89–110, 2003.Google Scholar
  120. St.Clair, S.B., Lynch, J.P.: The opening of Pandora’s Box: climate change impacts on soil fertility and crop nutrition in developing countries. — Plant Soil. 335: 101–115, 2010.Google Scholar
  121. Tissue, D.T., Thomas, R.B., Strain, B.R.: Atmospheric CO2 enrichment increases growth and photosynthesis of Pinus taeda: a 4-year experiment in the field. — Plant Cell Environ. 20: 1123–1134, 1997.Google Scholar
  122. Tubiello, F.N., Soussana, J.F., Howden, S.M.: Crop and pasture response to climate Change. — P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104: 19686–19690. 2007.Google Scholar
  123. van Keulen, H., Van Laar, H.H., Rabbinge, R. (ed.): 40 Years Theory and Model at Wageningen UR. Pp 57. Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, 2008.Google Scholar
  124. van Wart, J., Grassini, P., Cassman, K.G.: Impact of derived weather data on simulated crop yields. — Global Change Biol. 19: 3822–3834, 2013.Google Scholar
  125. Veltkamp, H.J.: Physiological causes of yield variation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). — PhD. Thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen 1986.Google Scholar
  126. Wall, G.W, Kimball, B.A., White, J.W., Ottman, M.J.: Gas exchange and water relations of spring wheat under fullseason infrared warming. — Global Change Biol. 17: 2113–2133, 2011.Google Scholar
  127. Walter, K.M., Zimov, S.A., Chanton, J.P., Verbyla, D., Chapin, F.S.: Methane bubbling from Siberian thaw lakes as a positive feedback to climate warming. — Nature 443: 71–75, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Wardlaw, I. F.: Translocation and source-sink relationships. — In: Carlson, P. S. (ed.): The Biology of Crop Productivity. Pp. 297–339. Academic Press, New York 1980.Google Scholar
  129. White, J.W., Hoogenboom, G., Kimball, B.A., Wall, G.W.: Methodologies for simulating impacts of climate change on crop production. — Field Crop. Res. 124: 357–368, 2011a.Google Scholar
  130. White, J.W., Kimball, B.A., Wall, G.W., Ottman, M.J., Hunt, L.A.: Responses of time of anthesis and maturity to sowing dates and infrared warming in spring wheat. — Field Crop. Res. 124: 213–222, 2011b.Google Scholar
  131. Ziska, L.H., Bunce, J.A.: Influence of increasing carbon dioxide concentration on photosynthetic and growth stimulation of selected C4 crops and weeds. — Photosynth. Res. 54: 199–208, 1997.Google Scholar
  132. Ziska, L.H., Hogan, K.P., Smith, A.P., Drake, B.G.: Growth and photosynthesis response of nine tropical species with longterm exposure to elevated carbon dioxide. — Oecologia 86: 383–389, 1991.Google Scholar
  133. Ziska, L.H., Sicher, R.C., Bunce, J.A.: The impact of elevated carbon dioxide on the growth and gas exchange of three C4 species differing in CO2 leak rates. — Physiol. Plantarum 105: 74–80, 1999.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Institute of Experimental Botany 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT)Cali-PalmiraColombia

Personalised recommendations