, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 29–36 | Cite as

Effects of ozone exposure on growth and photosynthesis of the seedlings of Liriodendron chinense (Hemsl.) Sarg, a native tree species of subtropical China

Original Papers


Little is known about the response of trees to elevated ozone (O3) in the subtropical region of China, where ambient O3 concentrations are high enough to damage plants. In this study, pigment content, gas exchange and chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence in leaves of Liriodendron chinense (Hemsl.) Sarg seedlings, a deciduous broadleaf tree species native in subtropical regions, were investigated at 15, 40, and 58 days after O3 fumigation (DAF) at a concentration of 150 mm3 m−3 (E-O3). At the end of experiment, seedlings were harvested for biomass measurement. E-O3 caused visible injuries on the mature leaves e.g. necrotic patches and accelerated early defoliation. Relative to the charcoal-filtered air (CF) treatment, E-O3 significantly decreased shoot and root biomass, pigment content, light-saturated net photosynthesis (P Nsat), stomatal conductance (g s), maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax), photochemical quenching coefficient (qp) and effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII), and also caused a slight reduction in relative increase of basal diameter. Therefore, L. chinense can be assumed to be an O3-sensitive tree species, which will be threatened by increasing ambient O3 concentrations in China.

Additional key words

gas exchange growth Liriodendron chinense ozone 



the cumulative O3 exposure over a threshold of the 1-h average [O3] of 40 mm3 m−3 during daytime




charcoal-filtered air




intercellular CO2 concentration


days after fumigation


elevated [O3] treatment


maximum fluorescence yield of light-adapted state


minimum fluorescence yield of light-adapted state


steady-state fluorescence yield


actual photochemical efficiency of PSII in the saturated light


stomatal conductance


maximum rate of electron transport contributing to RuBP regeneration




light-saturated photosynthesis


photosynthetic photon flux density


photochemical quenching coefficient


maximum rate of carboxylation


effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry


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This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30700086) and Tiantong National Station of Forest Ecosystems (XT200707). The authors thank Professor Zongwei Feng for his valuable suggestions on this experiment. We thank Dr. Charles Chen (Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences) for his helps on English improvement. The critical comments of the anonymous reviewers are also appreciated.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental SciencesChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.School of Chemical and Environmental EngineeringBeijing Technology and Business UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.School of Resources and Environment ScienceEast China Normal UniversityShanghaiChina

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