Advertisement

Philosophical Studies

, Volume 168, Issue 1, pp 59–100 | Cite as

Pragmatic enrichment as coherence raising

  • Peter Pagin
Article

Abstract

This paper concerns the phenomenon of pragmatic enrichment, and has a proposal for predicting the occurrence of such enrichments. The idea is that an enrichment of an expressed content c occurs as a means of strengthening the coherence between c and a salient given content c’ of the context, whether c’ is given in discourse, as sentence parts, or through perception. After enrichment, a stronger coherence relation is instantiated than before enrichment. An idea of a strength scale of types of coherence relations is proposed and applied.

Keywords

Coherence Coherence strength Pragmatic enrichment Coherence relations Relevance theory Neo-Gricean theory Generalized conversational implicatures Robyn Carston Fracois Recanati Kent Bach Jeremy Hobbs Andrew Kehler Modulations 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Earlier versions of this work have been presented at a conference on Peter Strawson’s work at the Academy of Science in Prague in April 2009, a conference on systematic pragmatics at Stockholm University in May 2009, at the Euro-XPrag conference in Leuven in June 2010, at the Content, Context and Conversation Lichtenberg-Kolleg Workshop at the Georg-August Universität Göttingen in June 2011, and at the Language and Linguistics workshop at the Inter-University Center of Dubrovnik in September 2011. I am grateful for comments from the audiences on those occasions, especially Nicholas Asher, Christian Beyer, Stephen Butterfill, Herman Cappelen, Robyn Carston, Mari Duží, Bart Geurts, Kathrin Glüer, Julie Hunter, Jeff King, Luisa Martí, Petr Kotatko, Stephen Neale, Ira Noveck, Stefano Predelli, Francois Recanati, Petra Schumacher, Mandy Simons, Barry Smith, Paul Snowdon, Dag Westerståhl, and Deirdre Wilson. As always, I owe much to Kathrin Glüer’s inputs in discussions over the years of working on this theme. I am also extremely indebted to comments from two anonymous referees. Their remarks led to improvements not only of the presentation and the discussion, but also of the theory itself. This work has been made possible by a Grant from the Tercentenary Foundation of the Swedish National Bank, project Interpretational Complexity, as well as by support from the ESF Eurocores project CCCOM, Communication in Context, led by Professor Åsa Wikforss.

References

  1. Asher, N., & Lascarides, A. (2003). Logics of conversation. Studies in natural language processing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bach, K. (1994). Conversational impliciture. Mind and Language 9, 124–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bach, K. (2010). ‘Impliciture vs. explicature: What’s the difference?’, In B. Soria, E. Romero (Eds.), Explicit communication. Robyn Carston’s pragmatics, (pp. 126–137). London: PalgraveMacMillan.Google Scholar
  4. Carston, R. (1995). Quantity maxims and generalized implicature. Lingua 96, 213–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carston, R. (2002). Thoughts and utterances. Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carston, R. (2004a). Relevance theory and the saying/implicating distinction. In L. R. Horn, & W. Gregory (Eds.), The handbook of pragmatics (pp. 633–656). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  7. Carston, R. (2004b). ‘Truth-conditional content and conversational implicature’. In B. Claudia. (Eds.), The semantics/ pragmatics distinction (pp. 65–100). Stanford, CA: CSLI.Google Scholar
  8. Davidson, D. (1984). Inquiries into truth and interpretation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  9. Dowty, D. (1986). The effects of aspectual class on the temporal structure of discourse: Semantics or pragmatics? Linguistics and Philosophy 9, 37–61.Google Scholar
  10. Grice, H. P. (1975). ‘Logic and conversation’. In P. Cole, J. L. Morgan (Eds.), Speech acts, Vol. 3. Syntax and semantics. New York: Academic Press. Reprinted in Grice 1989, chap. 2, pp. 22–40. Page references to the reprint.Google Scholar
  11. Grice, H. P. (1989). Studies in the ways of words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Groenendijk, J., & Stokhof, M. (1994). Questions. In A. ter Meulen, & J. van Benthem (Eds.), Handbook of logic and language, Chap. 19. (pp. 1055–1124). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  13. Hobbs, J. R. (1985). On the coherence and structure of discourse. Technical report CSLI-85–37. Stanford University, CSLI.Google Scholar
  14. Hobbs, J. R., et al. (1993). Interpretation as abduction. Artificial Intelligence 63, 69–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Horn, L. R. (2004). ‘Implicature’. In L. R. Horn, G. Ward (Eds.), The handbook of pragmatics, (pp. 3–28). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  16. Horn, L. R., & Ward, G. (Eds.) (2004). The handbook of pragmatics. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  17. Hume, D. (1748). An inquiry concerning human understanding, 1955 Edn. New York: Liberal Arts Press.Google Scholar
  18. Kamp, H., & Reyle, U. (1993). From dscourse to logic: Introduction to model theoretic semantics of natural language, formal logic and discourse representation theory. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  19. Kaplan, D. (1989). Demonstratives. In J. Almog, J. Perry, H., & Wettstein (Eds.), Themes from Kaplan, (pp. 481–563). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Kehler, A. (2002). Coherence, reference, and the theory of grammar. Stanford University: CSLI.Google Scholar
  21. Knott, A., & Dale, R. (1994). Using linguistic phenomena to motivate a set of coherence relations. Discourse Processes 18, 35–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Leth, P. (2010). `Paraphrase and Rhetorical Adjustment. An Essay on Contextualism and Cohesion. Ph.D. thesis. University of Gothenburg and Université Paris-Est Créteil, Gothenburg.Google Scholar
  23. Levinson, S. C (2000). Presumptive meanings. The theory of generalized conversational implicature. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  24. Lewis, D. (1979). Scorekeeping in a language game. Journal of Philosophical Logic 8. Reprinted in Lewis 1983, 233–49. Page references to the reprint, pp. 339–359.Google Scholar
  25. Lewis, D. (1983). Philosophical papers, Vol. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Maienborn, C., von Heusinger, K., & Portner, P. (Eds.). (2011). Semantics. An international handbook of natural language meaning. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  27. Nunberg, G. (1979). The non-uniqueness of semantic solutions: Polysemy. Linguistics and Philosophy 3, 143–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nunberg, G. (1993). Indexicality and deixis. Linguistics and Philosophy 16, 1–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nunberg, G. (1995). Transfers of meaning. Journal of Semantics 12, 109–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ogihara, T. (2011). Tense, Chap. 57. In C. Maienborn, K. von Heusinger, P. Portner (Eds.), Semantics. An international handbook of natural language meaning (Vol. 2, pp. 1483–1464). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  31. Pagin, P. (2005). Compositionality and context. In Gerhard, P., Georg, P. (Eds.), Contextualism in philosophy (pp. 303–348). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Pagin, P. (2007). Pragmatic composition? In M. Zouhar, T. Marvan (Eds.), Svet jazyka a svet za jazykom (pp. 11–26). Supplement volume of Organon F.Google Scholar
  33. Pagin, P., & Pelletier, F. J. (2007). Content, context and communication. In G. Preyer, G. Peter (Eds.), Context-sensitivity and semantic minimalism. New essays on seman tics and pragmatics (pp. 25–62). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Portner, P. (2011). Perfect and progressive, Chap. 49. In C. Maienborn, K. von Heusinger, P. Portner (Eds.), Semantics. An international handbook of natural language meaning (Vol. 2, pp. 1217–1261). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  35. Quine Van, W. O. (1960). Word and object. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  36. Recanati, F. (2004). Literal meaning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Recanati, François (2010). Truth-conditional pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Reichenbach, H. (1947). Elements of symbolic logic. New York: MacmillanGoogle Scholar
  39. Rumelhart, D. (1979). Some problems with the notion of literal meanings. In A Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and thought. 2nd ed, (pp. 71–82). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Sanders, T. J. M., Spooren, W. P. M., & Noordman, L. G. M. (1992). Toward a taxonomy of coherence relations. Discourse Processes 15, 1–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sperber, D., & Wilson, D. (1986). Relevance. Communication and cognition, 1st edn. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  42. Sperber, D., & Wilson, D. (1995). Relevance. Communication and cognition, 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  43. Stanley, J. (2000). Context and logical form. Linguistics and Philosophy 23, 391–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wilson, D., & Matsui, T. (1998). Recent approaches to bridging: Truth, coherence, relevance. In UCL Working Papers in Linguistics 10, pp. 1–28. Reprinted in Wilson and Sperber 2012a, pp. 187–209. Page references to the reprint.Google Scholar
  45. Wilson, D., & Sperber, D. (2004). Relevance theory. In Laurence R. Horn, G. W. (Eds.), The handbook of pragmatics (pp. 607–632). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  46. Wilson, D., & Sperber, D. (2012a). Meaning and relevance. Cambridge: California University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wilson, D., & Sperber, D. (2012b). ‘Pragmatics, modularity, and mindreading’, Chap. 12. In meaning and relevance (pp. 261–278). Cambridge: California University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Zobel, S. (2010). Non-standard uses of German 1st person singular pronouns. In K. Nakakoji, Y. Murakami, & E. McCready (Eds.), JSAI-isAI, LNAI 6284 (pp. 292–311). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.StockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations