A year after the destruction of the Twin Towers, you face south at a location from which the North Tower formerly blocked the view of the South Tower. Can you see the absence of the Twin Towers?
The counterfactual requirement
You see the absence of something only if you occupy a perspective from which you would have seen it. You have adopted an incomplete perspective that would have revealed only the North Tower. Therefore, you are not seeing the absence of the Twin Towers.
Photographers operationalize the counterfactual requirement for seeing absences. They retrieve an old photograph of the object, match the perspective, and take a new photograph. The before and after images are then presented side by side.
KeywordsActual World Speech Perception Deliberate Practice Shape Perception Chess Player
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