Awareness of osteoporosis risk assessment tools and screening recommendations among community pharmacists in Malaysia

Abstract

Background The incidence of osteoporosis in Malaysia is increasing due to a fast-ageing population. Because of its silent nature, various osteoporosis risk assessment tools exist to detect high-risk patients and facilitate referrals for bone mineral density measurements. As an accessible point of contact, community pharmacists would benefit from the utilization of these tools and familiarity with guideline recommendations for osteoporosis screening. Aim This study aimed to investigate the awareness of osteoporosis risk assessment tools, practice behaviour towards osteoporosis, and knowledge of guideline recommendations among community pharmacists in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Setting Community pharmacies. Methods This study was a cross-sectional study which sampled 284 community pharmacists practicing in the Klang Valley, using a stratified sampling approach. The study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire which was divided into three sections: demographic data, knowledge of osteoporosis risk assessment tools and guideline recommendations, and practice behaviour towards osteoporosis. Practice behaviour was assessed with 15 items using a 5-point Likert scale. Main outcome measure. Proportion of respondents aware of osteoporosis risk assessment tools and respondent knowledge on guideline recommendations for osteoporosis screening. Results A total of 284 community pharmacists participated in the study. 84.1% of the respondents were aware of at least one risk assessment tool. However, only a small proportion of pharmacists (14.9%) regularly used these tools in their practice. Respondents perceived these tools to be relevant and beneficial, but perception towards their accessibility, ease-of-use, and administration time was mixed, suggesting unfamiliarity. Respondents preferred to conduct clinical assessments based on risk factors, with respondents identifying a mean of 10.1 ± 3.4 out of 15 risk factors. However, several clinically relevant risk factors were frequently unidentified. Knowledge of guideline recommendations among respondents was low. Conclusion There is some awareness of osteoporosis risk assessment tools but use in practice remains low among community pharmacists in Malaysia. There is potential to increase the use of these tools and knowledge of recommendations for osteoporosis screening and referral among community pharmacists.

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Correspondence to Jason S. E. Loo.

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Francis, J., Toh, L.S., Sellappans, R. et al. Awareness of osteoporosis risk assessment tools and screening recommendations among community pharmacists in Malaysia. Int J Clin Pharm (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-020-01169-z

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Keywords

  • Community pharmacy
  • Osteoporosis
  • Screening