International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 40, Issue 5, pp 1037–1043 | Cite as

Utilization of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis for obstetrics and gynaecology surgeries in Northern Nigeria

  • U. AbubakarEmail author
  • S. A. Syed Sulaiman
  • A. G. Adesiyun
Research Article


Background Audit of antibiotic prophylaxis is an important strategy used to identify areas where stewardship interventions are required. Objectives To evaluate compliance with surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in obstetrics and gynaecology surgeries and determine the Defined Daily Dose (DDD) of antibiotic. Settings Three public tertiary hospitals located in Northern Nigeria. Methods This prospective study included women who had obstetrics and gynaecology surgeries with no infection at the time of incision. Appropriateness of antibiotic prophylaxis was determined by a clinical pharmacist. DDD of antibiotics was determined using ATC/DDD index 2017 from the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Drugs Statistics Methodology. Main outcome measure Compliance with antibiotic prophylaxis and DDD of antibiotic per procedure. Results A total of 248 procedures were included (mean age: 31.7 ± 7.9 years). Nitroimidazole in combination with either beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor or third generation cephalosporin were the most prescribed antibiotics. Redundant anaerobic antibiotic combination was detected in 71.4% of the procedures. Timing of antibiotic prophylaxis was optimal in 16.5% while duration of prophylaxis was prolonged in all the procedures (mean duration was 8.7 ± 1.0 days). The DDD of antibiotics prophylaxis was 16.75 DDD/procedure. Antibiotic utilisation was higher in caesarean section and myomectomy (17.9 DDD/procedure) than hysterectomy (14.5 DDD/procedure); P < 0.001. Redundant metronidazole represents one-third of total DDD and 87% of the DDD for metronidazole. Conclusion Excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotic prophylaxis was observed in women who had obstetrics and gynaecology surgeries. These observations underline the need for antimicrobial stewardship interventions to improve antibiotic use.


Antibiotic prophylaxis Antibiotic utilisation Defined Daily Dose Gynaecology Nigeria Obstetrics Redundant antibiotic 



The authors wish to thank the staff of the department of obstetrics and gynaecology in the three hospitals for their assistance during data collection.


This study received no funding from any organization.

Conflicts of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaGeorge TownMalaysia
  2. 2.Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida Specialist HospitalMinnaNigeria
  3. 3.Ahmadu Bello University Teaching HospitalZariaNigeria

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