Advertisement

Hospital clinical pharmacy services in Vietnam

  • Hieu T. Trinh
  • Huong T. L. Nguyen
  • Van T. T. Pham
  • Hai L. Ba
  • Phuong T. X. Dong
  • Thao T. B. Cao
  • Hanh T. H. Nguyen
  • Jo-anne Brien
Research Article

Abstract

Background Clinical pharmacy is key to the quality use of medicines. While there are different approaches in different countries, international perspectives may inform health service development. The Vietnamese Ministry of Health introduced a legal regulation of clinical pharmacy services in December 2012. Objective To describe the services, and to explore reported barriers and facilitators in implementing clinical pharmacy activities in Vietnamese hospitals after the introduction of Vietnamese Ministry of Health legal regulation. Setting Thirty-nine hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam, including 22 provincial and 17 district hospitals. Method A mixed methods study was utilized. An online questionnaire was sent to the hospitals. In-depth interviews were conducted with pairs of nominated pharmacists at ten of these hospitals. The questionnaire focused on four areas: facilities, workforce, policies and clinical pharmacy activities. Main outcome measure Proportion of clinical pharmacy activities in hospitals. Themes in clinical pharmacy practice. Results 34/39 (87%) hospitals had established clinical pharmacy teams. Most activities were non-patient-specific (87%) while the preliminary patient-specific clinical pharmacy services were available in only 8/39 hospitals (21%). The most common non-patient-specific activities were providing medicines information (97%), reporting adverse drug reactions (97%), monitoring medication usage (97%). The patient specific activities varied widely between hospitals and were ad hoc. The main challenges reported were: lack of workforce and qualified clinical pharmacists. Conclusion While most hospitals had hospital-based pharmacy activities, the direct patient care was limited. Training, education and an expanded work forces are needed to improve clinical pharmacy services.

Keywords

Clinical pharmacy Health service research Hospital Vietnam 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the hospital pharmacists for their participation in this study. We also thank Dr. Hoa D. Vu, Dr. Hai T. Nguyen, Ms. Phuong H. Hoang, Ms. Thao T. Nguyen at the Department of Clinical Pharmacy, the Hanoi University of Pharmacy, Hanoi Vietnam for their support in data collection; and Professor Parisa Aslani at the Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia for her valuable comments on the draft version of the manuscript.

Funding

This study was funded by the Hanoi University of Pharmacy.

Conflicts of interest

None.

Supplementary material

11096_2018_633_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 1194 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Society of Hospital Pharmacists of Australia (SHPA). SHPA standards of practice for clinical pharmacy. J Pharm Pract Res. 2005;35(2):122–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schumock GT, Butler MG, Meek PD, Vermeulen LC, Arondekar BV, Bauman JL, et al. Evidence of the economic benefit of clinical pharmacy services: 1996–2000. Pharmacotherapy. 2003;23(1):113–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pedersen CA, Schneider PJ, Scheckelhoff DJ. ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings: monitoring and patient education—2015. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2016;73(17):1307–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pedersen CA, Schneider PJ, Scheckelhoff DJ. ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings: dispensing and administration—2014. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2015;72(13):1119–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pedersen CA, Schneider PJ, Scheckelhoff DJ. ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings: prescribing and transcribing—2013. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2014;71(11):924–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pedersen CA, Schneider PJ, Scheckelhoff DJ. ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings: monitoring and patient education—2012. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2013;70(9):787–803.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pedersen CA, Schneider PJ, Scheckelhoff DJ. ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings: dispensing and administration—2011. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2012;69(9):768–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bonnici A, Bornstein C, Bussières J, Doucette D, Hall K, Jones R. Hospital pharmacy in Canada 2013/2014 report. Indianapolis: Eli Lilly; 2014.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Horák P, Peppard J, Sýkora J, Miharija Gala T, Underhill J, Gibbons N. EAHP European Statements baseline survey 2015: results. Eur J Hosp Pharm. 2016;23(2):69–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Penm J, Moles R, Wang H, Li Y, Chaar B. Factors affecting the implementation of clinical pharmacy services in China. Qual Health Res. 2014;24(3):345–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Penm J, Chaar B, Moles R. Hospital pharmacy services in the Pacific Island countries. J Eval Clin Pract. 2015;21(1):51–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Penm J, Chaar B, Moles R. Clinical pharmacy services that influence prescribing in the Western Pacific Region based on the FIP Basel Statements. Int J Clin Pharm. 2015;37(3):485–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wiffen P, Mitchell M, Snelling M, Stoner N. Oxford handbook of clinical pharmacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vietnamese Ministry of Health. Legal regulation for clinical pharmacy activities in Vietnamese hospitals (Document number 31/2012/TT-BYT). 2012.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hoang HK. Textbook of clinical pharmacy (Vietnamese). Vietnam: Vietnamese Medical Publisher; 2006.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vietnamese Ministry of Health. Legal regulation for Drug and Therapy Committees in Vietnamese hospitals (Document number 08/BYT-TT). 1997.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vietnamese Ministry of Health. Legal regulation for organization, functions and activities of drug information centres in Vietnamese hospitals (Document number 10766/YT-DTr). 2003.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vietnamese Ministry of Health. Legal regulation for drug information in marketing and communication (Document number 13/2009/TT-BYT). 2009.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy at Hanoi University of Pharmacy. Assessment of the current situation on the implementation of the clinical pharmacy programme in hospitals at two levels: central and provincial. WHO Reference: 2011/123122-0. 2010.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Le-Ba H. La pharmacie clinique: realisations dans le monde et opportunites en milieu hospitalier au Vietnam: Université catholique de Louvain; 2014.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    General Statistics Office of Vietnam. Areas, population, population density by provinces in 2011. 2011. http://www.gso.gov.vn/default.aspx?tabid=387&idmid=3&ItemID=12875. Accessed 15 Sept 2017.
  22. 22.
    Hanoi Promotion Agency. Hanoi: Areas and populations of 30 districts. 2017. http://hpa.gov.vn/dau-tu/moi-truong-dau-tu/ha-noi-va-nhung-con-so/quy-mo-dan-so-va-dien-tich-30-quan-huyen-cua-ha-noi-a2144. Accessed 15 Sept 2017.
  23. 23.
    Vietnamese Government. List of organizations which are under direct administration of Ministry of Health. 2009. http://www.vietnam.gov.vn/portal/page/portal/chinhphu/hethongvanban?class_id=1&_page=239&mode=detail&document_id=91647. Accessed 15 Sept 2017.
  24. 24.
    Guest G, MacQueen KM, Namey EE. Applied thematic analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage; 2011.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bond CA, Raehl CL, Pitterle ME. Staffing and the cost of clinical and hospital pharmacy services in United States hospitals. Pharmacotherapy. 1999;19(6):767–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bond CA, Raehl CL, Franke T. Clinical pharmacy services, pharmacy staffing, and the total cost of care in United States hospitals. Pharmacotherapy. 2000;20(6):609–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bond CA, Raehl CL, Franke T. Interrelationships among mortality rates, drug costs, total cost of care, and length of stay in United States hospitals: summary and recommendations for clinical pharmacy services and staffing. Pharmacotherapy. 2001;21(2):129–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bond CA, Raehl CL. 2006 national clinical pharmacy services survey: clinical pharmacy services, collaborative drug management, medication errors, and pharmacy technology. Pharmacotherapy. 2008;28(1):1–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Malone PM. Drug information: a guide for pharmacists. New York: McGraw Hill; 2012.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Society of Hospital Pharmacists of Australia (SHPA). SHPA Standards of Practice for Drug Information Services. 2013.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bobb A, Gleason K, Husch M, Feinglass J, Yarnold PR, Noskin GA. The epidemiology of prescribing errors: the potential impact of computerized prescriber order entry. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(7):785–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lessard S, DeYoung J, Vazzana N. Medication discrepancies affecting senior patients at hospital admission. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2006;63(8):740–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Society of Hospital Pharmacists of Australia (SHPA). SHPA Standards of practice for the provision of medication reconciliation. 2013.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vermeulen LC, Moles RJ, Collins JC, Gray A, Sheikh AL, Surugue J, et al. Revision of the International Pharmaceutical Federation’s Basel Statements on the future of hospital pharmacy: from Basel to Bangkok. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2016;73(14):1077–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bond CA, Raehl CL, Patry R. Evidence-based core clinical pharmacy services in United States hospitals in 2020: services and staffing. Pharmacotherapy. 2004;24(4):427–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hieu T. Trinh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Huong T. L. Nguyen
    • 2
  • Van T. T. Pham
    • 2
  • Hai L. Ba
    • 2
  • Phuong T. X. Dong
    • 2
  • Thao T. B. Cao
    • 2
  • Hanh T. H. Nguyen
    • 2
  • Jo-anne Brien
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of PharmacyThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Clinical PharmacyHanoi University of PharmacyHanoiVietnam
  3. 3.St Vincent’s Clinical SchoolFaculty of Medicine, UNSW AustraliaSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations