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International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 40, Issue 5, pp 1096–1105 | Cite as

Community pharmacists and mental illness: a survey of service provision, stigma, attitudes and beliefs

  • Vincent Giannetti
  • Charles F. Caley
  • Khalid M. Kamal
  • Jordan R. Covvey
  • Jerry McKee
  • Barbara G. Wells
  • Dean M. Najarian
  • Tyler J. Dunn
  • Pratyusha Vadagam
Research Article

Abstract

Background Half of Americans experience mental illness during their lifetime. Significant opportunity exists for community pharmacists to deliver services to these patients; however, personal and practice-related barriers may prevent full engagement. Objective To assess the demographics, practice characteristics, service provision, stigma, attitudes and beliefs of a national sample of community pharmacists towards individuals with mental illness. Setting National random sample of 3008 community pharmacists in the USA. Method 101-item cross-sectional mailed survey questionnaire on: (1) demographics, (2) knowledge and practice characteristics, (3) provision of clinical pharmacy services, and (4) comparative opinions. Main outcome measure Scaled measures of service provision (comfort, confidence, willingness and interest) and comparative opinions (stigma, attitudes and beliefs) of mental illness, four linear regression models to predict service provision. Results A total of 239 responses were received (response rate 7.95%). Across pharmacy services, ratings for willingness/interest were higher than those for comfort/confidence. Pharmacists who reported providing medication therapy management (MTM) services for patients reported higher comfort (18.36 vs. 17.46, p < 0.05), confidence (17.73 vs. 16.01, p < 0.05), willingness (20.0 vs. 18.62, p < 0.05) and interest (19.13 vs. 17.66, p < 0.05). Pharmacists with personal experience with mental illness also resulted in higher scores across all four domains of service provision, lower levels of stigma (18.28 vs. 20.76, p < 0.05) and more positive attitudes (52.24 vs. 50.53, p < 0.01). Regression analyses demonstrated increased frequency of MTM service delivery and more positive attitudes as significantly predictive across all four models for comfort, confidence, willingness and interest. Increased delivery of pharmacy services was significantly associated with both willingness and interest to provide mental illness-specific services. Conclusion Despite willingness/interest to provide services to patients with mental illness, decreased levels of comfort/confidence remain service-related barriers for community pharmacists.

Keywords

Community pharmacy Community pharmacy services Mental disorders Pharmacist knowledge Pharmacist attitudes Questionnaire Social stigma 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Hannah Cawoski, Somraj Ghosh, Ankur Dashputre and Mousam Parekh for their initial contributions to the construction of the survey instrument used in this study.

Funding

The authors acknowledge funding for this study received from Johnson and Johnson.

Conflicts of interest

KMK and JRC have received grant funding from Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp. DMN is an employee of Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC. The other authors have nothing to disclose. Two posters related to this research were presented at the College of Psychiatric and Neurologic Pharmacists Annual Meeting in Phoenix, AZ, April 2017, and one related poster was presented at the American College of Clinical Pharmacy Virtual Poster Symposium, May 2017.

Supplementary material

11096_2018_619_MOESM1_ESM.docx (219 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 219 kb)
11096_2018_619_MOESM2_ESM.docx (15 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 14 kb)
11096_2018_619_MOESM3_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 14 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vincent Giannetti
    • 1
  • Charles F. Caley
    • 2
  • Khalid M. Kamal
    • 1
  • Jordan R. Covvey
    • 1
  • Jerry McKee
    • 3
  • Barbara G. Wells
    • 4
  • Dean M. Najarian
    • 5
  • Tyler J. Dunn
    • 4
  • Pratyusha Vadagam
    • 6
  1. 1.Division of Pharmaceutical, Administrative and Social SciencesDuquesne University School of PharmacyPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacy PracticeWestern New England University College of Pharmacy and Health SciencesSpringfieldUSA
  3. 3.Community Care of North CarolinaRaleighUSA
  4. 4.The University of Mississippi School of PharmacyUniversityUSA
  5. 5.Janssen Scientific AffairsWrenthamUSA
  6. 6.Envision Pharma GroupNew YorkUSA

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