Survey of pharmacists’ antibiotic dosing recommendations for sustained low-efficiency dialysis
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Background The use of hybrid renal replacement therapies like sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLED) is increasing in ICUs worldwide. However, pharmacokinetic studies designed to inform therapeutic antibiotic dosing in critically ill patients receiving SLED are limited. SLED operational characteristics vary across institutions. Pharmacists in institutions that utilize SLED are challenged to recommend therapeutic doses for antibiotics. Objective To characterize pharmacist-recommended antibiotic regimens for SLED. Methods An electronic survey was sent to pharmacist members of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy in the Nephrology or Critical Care Practice and Research Network. Dosing recommendations for a hypothetical critically ill septic patient were collected for cefepime, ceftaroline, daptomycin, levofloxacin, meropenem, and piperacillin/tazobactam. Main outcome measure Antibiotic regimens for the six antibiotics, their frequency, pharmacist’s experience with renal replacement therapies (RRT), post-graduate training, years of clinical experience, number of staffed beds in their hospital, and RRT employed in their ICUs. Results The survey was completed by 69 clinical pharmacists who had 8.5 ± 7.5 (mean ± SD) years of experience. All pharmacists had experience dosing medications for patients receiving RRT. The most frequently recommended regimen for each antibiotic was: cefepime 1000 mg every 24 h, ceftaroline 200 mg every 12 h, daptomycin 6 mg/kg every 24 h, levofloxacin 500 mg every 24 h, meropenem 1000 mg every 12 h, and piperacillin/tazobactam 2250 mg every 8 h. Up to nine distinct regimens were recommended for each antibiotic, and the total daily dose between these regimens ranged by as much as a 12-fold. Neither pharmacist’s experience with SLED, post-graduate training, nor years of clinical experience were significantly associated with particular dosing recommendations for the antibiotics. Conclusion Pharmacists working in institutions that utilize SLED make antibiotic dosing recommendations that vary 4–12-fold depending on the drug. Published research does not provide adequate guidance to optimally dose antibiotics in patients receiving SLED. More SLED pharmacokinetic trials, real-time serum concentration monitoring and advanced pharmacokinetic modeling techniques are necessary to ensure therapeutic dosing in patients receiving SLED.
KeywordsAntibiotics Ceftaroline Critical care Daptomycin Cefepime Hemodialysis Levofloxacin Meropenem Pharmacokinetics Piperacillin SLED Tazobactam
The authors sincerely thank all survey respondents for their time and valuable insight.
No funding was received for this study.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.
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