Cost effectiveness of three drugs for the treatment of S. aureus infections in Nigeria
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Background Resistance of microorganisms to existing antimicrobial agents threatens the effective utilization of available resources in sub-Saharan Africa. Cost-effective utilization of antibacterial agents is essential in effective health care delivery in Nigeria. Objectives To determine the most cost effective antibacterial agent in the treatment of S. aureus infections in Lagos metropolis. Setting The study was carried out in a teaching hospital, a specialist hospital, a referral center and two private hospitals. Methods Cost effectiveness analysis of ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime and gentamicin identified to be most effective agent against 463 clinical isolates of S. aureus obtained from the five hospitals was carried out on the basis of societal, health care and third party perspectives using ‘decision table” as an analytical model. Criteria considered in the model included degree of efficacy of the agents, adherence tendencies and tolerability. Both direct (cost of drugs, diagnosis/monitoring, personnel and transportation) and indirect (loss of productivity) costs were evaluated. Main outcome measures These include economic outcome as total therapy cost, clinical outcomes as extent of antibacterial effectiveness obtained from degree of antibacterial efficacy, a proxy measurement of cure rates, and adherence tendency. Humanistic outcome was also measured as tolerability prorated from literature reported degree of adverse drug reactions events, risk of infection and pains from drug administration. Results Ciprofloxacin tablet is a dominant option and much more cost-effective than either cefuroxime or gentamicin in the treatment of S. aureus in Lagos. Regardless of the perspective of analysis, ciprofloxacin has the least cost effectiveness ratio of NGN4214.66 ($28.09), NGN2392.63 ($16.00) and NGN2048.66 ($13.65) from societal, health care and third party payer perspectives, respectively. Sensitivity analysis by increasing the effectiveness index of gentamicin injection-the least cost effective option to the value for the most cost effective option did not change the results. Conclusion Ciprofloxacin should be used as first-line-treatment of S aureus in Lagos as it will lead to significant cost savings in the treatment of S. aureus infections.
KeywordsAntibacterial therapy Cost effectiveness analysis Cost of therapy Nigeria Pharmacoeconomics Staphylococcus aureus
The cooperation and support of the management and staff of all the hospitals is highly appreciated. The authors express gratitude for the input of Dr. Patrick O. Erah of University of Benin, Nigeria in manuscript revision.
No special funding was obtained for this study.
Conflicts of interest
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