International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 33, Issue 6, pp 934–941 | Cite as

The appropriateness of enoxaparin use in Lebanese hospitals: a quality evaluation study

  • A. A. ZeitounEmail author
  • J. G. Nassif
  • M. M. Zeineddine
Research Article


Background Although, guidelines for the appropriate use of enoxaparin are published, yet the extent of their implementation in clinical practice is still questionable. Furthermore, the optimal dosing of enoxaparin in special populations such as renal insufficiency and obesity remains controversial. In the Middle East, there are insufficient data on the appropriateness of enoxaparin use in different indications. Objective (1) To assess the appropriateness of enoxaparin dosing and duration per indication in compliance with the recommended guidelines and their impact on safety and efficacy outcomes in Lebanese health care centers. (2) To evaluate the influence of the hospital type (teaching vs. non-teaching) on the extent of compliance with established guidelines. Setting Seventeen health care centers in Lebanon, including teaching and non-teaching hospitals. Methods An observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted in 17 Lebanese hospitals. Data on demographics, indication, dosing regimen and clinical outcomes were collected. The appropriateness of dosing practices was determined as per the ACCP guidelines and the FDA dosing recommendations. Main outcome measure The appropriateness of enoxaparin dosing was compared across different hospital type and among special populations including severe renal insufficiency and very obese patients. Results Of the 463 patients who participated in the study, 40% received improper enoxaparin dosing, which was mostly observed in the VTE prophylaxis group (41.6%, P < 0.001). When comparing the overall dosing practices in Lebanese hospitals, there was no statistically significant difference in the correctness of enoxaparin dosing between teaching and non-teaching hospitals (61.6% vs. 58.2%, P = 0.449), respectively. Only 11.5% of renally impaired patients and 59.4% of obese patients received correct doses. Conclusion This study highlighted the improper practice and thus the need of implementation of clinical practice guidelines for the dosing of enoxaparin, in Lebanese hospitals.


Appropriateness Dosing Enoxaparin Hospital pharmacy Lebanon Low molecular weight heparin Obese Renal impairment 



No funding was received.

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. A. Zeitoun
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. G. Nassif
    • 2
  • M. M. Zeineddine
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Pharmacy, Pharmacy Practice DepartmentLebanese American UniversityByblosLebanon
  2. 2.School of Pharmacy, Pharmacy Practice DepartmentLebanese American UniversityByblosLebanon
  3. 3.School of PharmacyLebanese American UniversityByblosLebanon

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